Average Climate Condition & Global Temperature
2. The figure below shows how the mean (average) annual global temperature (for both land and ocean) has changed from 1880 to 2018. It shows temperature anomalies (how much difference to the average) relative to the 30-year average for 1951-1980. Positive annual global temperature anomalies indicate that year was warmer than the 1951-1980 average, while negative annual global temperature anomalies indicate that year was cooler than the 1951-1980 average. The original data (used to create the figure) can be accessed here:https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/graph_data/Global_Mean_Estimates_based_on_Land_and_Ocean_Data/graph.txt . Use the annual mean data (2nd column of table) to help answer the following questions.
a) When did the warmest year on record occur? What was the anomaly value?
b) When did the next three warmest years occur? Give their respective anomaly values as well.
c) When was the most recent year that the average annual global temperature was below the 1951-1980 average?
d) What is the temperature anomaly in the year when you were born? What is the difference between then and 2019?
- Monthly measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa began in March 1958. The annual average CO2 concentration was 315.97 ppm in 1959. It is 411.43ppm in 2019.
- September Arctic sea ice extent (shown in the figure below) has been continuously measured since 1979.
- Following plot is the satellite observed sea level rise in recent decades. Please find out the sea-level rise in year 2000, 2010, current (last data point), and year you were born.
- Calculate the total increase in March concentration from 1959-2019 (61 years).
- Calculate the average increase (in ppm) per year.
- Calculate the increase of CO2 since you were born. What is the annual increase rate since you were born? How it compares with number in step (b)