Biology and Thermodynamics Questions

I’m studying for my Biology class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?


  1. The second law of thermodynamics says that energy transformations result in the universe becoming more disordered. If this is the case, how do we account for biological order?
  2. Describe the two types of chemical reactions and provide an example of each type of reaction as it occurs in living cells.
  3. How are chemical work, transport work, and mechanical work powered by ATP?
  4. What do enzymes have to do with chemical reactions?
  5. Explain how the unifying theme of “interactions between components of a system” relates to the cellular control of enzyme activity.
  6. How is energy harvested through cellular respiration?
  7. How is the transfer of electrons involved when your cells extract energy from fuel molecules?
  8. Outline and describe each step in glycolysis in a way that helps you understand the overall process.
  9. Outline and describe each step in the citric acid cycle in a way that helps you understand the overall process.
  10. What is the estimated number of ATP molecules produced from a single molecule of glucose? How many from each process in cellular respiration?
  11. What are autotrophs and why are they significant?
  12. Explain (in writing…using you own words) what is being diagrammed in Figure 7.2 starting with the picture of the leaf and ending with the picture of the thylakoid. Demonstrate your understanding by using the bold terms from section 7.2 in your description.
  13. What do light reactions and the Calvin cycle have to do with photosynthesis?
  14. What three components involved in the light reactions are imbedded in the thylakoid membrane?
  15. How is the energy created by the light reactions used to reduce CO2 to sugar?
  16. Explain some ways in which photosynthesis is globally significant.

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