Breastfeeding Is Crucial During a Childs Early Development Questions

I don’t know how to handle this Health & Medical question and need guidance.


you will have to answer each of the three (3) questions in a separate paragraph with insightful, in depth and complete answers using both personal and textbook information which must include at least one in-text citation from the assigned reading per post (1 quote per chapter). Acceptable minimum amount to get maximum points: at least 150 words per question (each of the THREE paragraphs). Posts that do not meet the minimum word length will receive a ZERO.

The reference/citation should include the page from which students paraphrased or quoted material from the textbook and must be in parentheses. Example: “Many people believe that the best way to achieve wellness is to adopt a holistic approach” (p. 5). NO BIBLIOGRAPHY REQUIRED. College level writing and responses are needed



Managing our fertility and making sure we produce healthy offspring are among the most crucial behaviors for adults. Methods of birth control are discussed in excellent detail, allowing the student to decide which option is safest and most desirable. This chapter also discusses emergency contraception for those times when unprotected sex did occur. Once a couple decides to have a child, it is important to understand what factors can lead to the best possible outcome. Appropriate diet and exercise are discussed. The harmful effects of drugs on the fetus as well as other agents that can cause harm are thoroughly examined. This chapter also deals with options for couples who are having difficulty conceiving or who may be infertile.


1. Discuss the different types of contraceptive methods, compare their effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

2. Summarize the legal decisions surrounding abortion and the various types of abortion procedures used today.

3. Discuss key issues to consider when planning a pregnancy.

4. Explain the importance of prenatal care and the physical and emotional aspects of pregnancy.

5. Describe the basic stages of childbirth, methods of managing childbirth, and the complications that can arise during labor and delivery.

6. Review primary causes of and possible solutions to infertility.


I. Methods of Fertility Management.

A. Conception refers to the fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.

1. The following conditions are necessary for conception:

a. A viable egg.

b. A viable sperm.

c. Possible access to the egg by the sperm.

B. Contraception or birth control refers to methods of preventing conception.

1. Perfect Failure rate refers to the number of pregnancies that are likely to occur in a year when used exactly as directed every time. (See Table 6.1)

2. Typical Use Failure rate is the number of pregnancies likely with typical use – making the usual mistakes.

3. Some methods can protect to some degree against STIs.

4. Barrier methods use a physical or chemical block to prevent the egg and sperm from joining, hormonal methods interfere with normal ovulation, surgical methods permanently prevent pregnancy.

C. Barrier methods.

1. The condom is the only temporary form of birth control for males in the United States. It is the only barrier that is effective in preventing the spread of many STIs such as herpes and HIV, also reduce cervical abnormalities in women that can lead to cancer (See Figure 6.1)

a. For greatest efficacy, they should be used with a spermicide and with water-based lubricants.

b. A complaint about condoms is that they ruin spontaneity.

2. Foams, suppositories, jellies, and creams contain chemical spermicides. They must cover the cervix, providing a chemical and physical barrier that stops sperm. (See Figure 6.2)

3. The female condom differs from the male condom because it covers the external genitalia, which can reduce the risk for some STIs such as genital warts and herpes.

a. Advantage is that women have more control over reproduction and STI


b. One reported disadvantage is that it is awkward and noisy.

4. Diaphragms with spermicide provide a chemical and physical barrier to sperm. (Figure 6.3)

a. It must be left in place 6-8 hours after last intercourse and must be

removed within 24 hours of insertion.

b. Advantages include ability to place before sexual activity, lower cost over the long run, protection of the cervix.

c. Disadvantages include difficulty placing it; if left in place too long or used during menstruation, risk of toxic shock syndrome (TSS), which is a bacterial infection, increases, increased risk for bladder infections.

5. The cervical cap fits snugly over the cervix to keep sperm out of the uterus.

a. Insertion may take place anywhere up to two days prior to intercourse,

and must be left in place for six to eight hours after intercourse.

b. Maximum time it can be left on the cervix is 48 hours. If removed and cleaned, it can be reinserted immediately. It cannot be left in for more than 48 hours or used during menstruation because of risk of TSS.

D. Hormonal Methods

1. Oral contraceptive pills combine synthetic estrogen and progesterone to prevent pregnancy.

a. Pills are meant to be taken in a cycle.

b. Today’s pill are lower in levels of hormones than earlier versions.

c. They can reduce the absorption of certain nutrients and reduce

effectiveness of certain medications, such as antibiotics increasing risk of

pregnancy, C and B complex vitamin loss.

d. Health risks from the pill include increased cardiovascular problems, especially for cigarette smokers.

e. Advantages include not interfering with lovemaking, lessening of menstrual difficulties such as cramps and PMS, lower risks for endometrial and ovarian cancer, less likely to develop fibrocystic breast disease, lower incidence of ectopic pregnancy, etc.

f. The major disadvantages are that it must be taken every day, doesn’t protect against STIs and the need for a physical exam prior to getting a prescription. Other disadvantages include increased blood pressure, tendency to produce blood clots, weight gain, etc.

2. Progestin-only pills are used when women suffer from side-effects related to estrogen.

3. Ortho Evra (the patch) is worn for one week and replaced on the same day of the week for three consecutive weeks; the fourth week is patch free.

a. Advantages include ease of use, and discrete yet durable

b. Disadvantages include symptoms such as headache, nausea, upper

respiratory infection, menstrual cramps, and abdominal pain. More

serious side effects include blood clots, stroke, or heart attacks, and lack

of protection against STIs.

4. NuvaRing is a soft, flexible ring about 2 inches in diameter that the user inserts into the vagina and leaves in place for three weeks.

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