I don’t understand this Health & Medical question and need help to study.
Draft a reply to another students Discussion Board Post. Here is the instructions for the reply:
2 replies of at least 450 words each to 2 classmates’ threads. Each thread and reply must reference at least 3 scholarly sources other than the course textbook and citations must follow current APA format (including both in-text citations and a reference list). You must also support each thread and reply with thoughtful analysis (considering assumptions, analyzing implications, and comparing/contrasting concepts and include thorough biblical worldview integration.
Here is the students post you are replying to:
The Ethical Issues for Society:
Healthcare professionals do have a challenging task every day, especially when faced with ethical decision making. The problem the world faces in this discussion regarding stem cells and cloning is ethical and moral standing. In society, cloning concludes that scientist destroys human life in order to save human lives. However, that puts the finger on the problem in a sort of brutal way because scientists and healthcare professionals cannot deny that they destroy the blastocyst. Furthermore, in a sense, scientists and health professionals destroy a potential human life. However, the status of humanity and human life has been the subject of thought and debate. Discussion from everyone involved, the philosophical approaches from Aristotle and Aquinas should be recognized as something special about the human being. However, they were not sure when that theory or when their human likeness came into being. However, people would deny medical research from research into embryonic and adult stem cells. However, the essentially ethical question is whether Christian or non-Christians be using embryos to do cloning. “Cloning is widely considered only to be biological discourse. Few, however, have paid attention to the cultural contexts that have made cloning conceivable”(Essed, & Goldberg, 2010, p.1066).
Furthermore, what is the moral status of the early human embryo? Is it entirely a person? Most Christians and non-Christians alike look at embryonic stem cell research and conclude the same issue. Most denominations tend to advise that abortion is all about when life begins. However, the unanswered questions are what protection we offer to all human beings. Leaders who make law-abiding decisions can never set aside a subset of humanity and say they are not deserving of protection. “Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hope for treatment of serious disease”(Larijani, Zahedi, 2004, p.3188). The Islamic perspectives of the status of the embryo state that one could recognize four different stages. First, the embryo outside the womb, the embryo when it is implanted into the womb, the education of 6 to 8 weeks when the fetus is fully formed, and finally, most importantly, is 120 days after conception installment takes place. However, that is a significant milestone for some people; furthermore, the embryo has no status and is a matter of duty that one should be researching to save human life. The scales weigh very heavily on one side; the opposite position is that there is no balance. There is a question of balance and how far scientists should justify the destruction of what could be the human being.
Incurable diseases also have interests that need to be looked after, and there is a moral obligation to cure diseases to relieve suffering and restore health. However, when considering the suffering of people who have diabetes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer and a few other incurable diseases, such as diabetes, is a large group; these are diseases that everybody knows somebody who suffers. There is an immense potential to cure diseases, but that has never been curable in the past. Scientists can eventually, through research, find something that can counterbalance the direct killing of a life. Furthermore, the moral and ethical question of how one begins as human beings and how one develops is an old issue. It was true that embryos became available outside the womb that the present questions were asked. Furthermore, that prompted the government to set up the Ad Hoc Committee, which looked in considerable detail at the moral and ethical issues surrounding the human embryo and to what extent research might or might not be permitted.
The ethical issues for a Christian healthcare professional:
One question that many people will feel is remote like what that has to do with Christianity unless they have a pet that they want to clone. However, ethical issues in healthcare for a Christian professional are real and come up every day. It is essential because it is a significant worldview issue; it has much to do with how Christians understand human beings are made in God’s image and how Christians understand the mandate given to these stewards of what God has created. Furthermore, when scientists and professionals talk about cloning, also referred to as somatic cell nuclear transfer. In most cases, this is important because when people hear about cloning and are asked whether they think that Christians should agree with human beings’ cloning, the overwhelming answer is no. However, when they are asked whether Christians participate in somatic cell nuclear transfer for genetic diseases, they will say yes. However, what most people do not know is that it is the same thing, and therefore, when we are talking about cloning or somatic cell nuclear transfer, there are two types. The cloning of human beings: The cloning of human beings is a critical issue; two types are discussed one is research cloning, sometimes called therapeutic cloning; and the other is reproductive cloning: In reproductive cloning, the purpose of this process would be that it is another way for an infertile couple to have a child, in other words, it is another form of assisted reproductive technology although people and denominations would argue it is a very different type of form. Furthermore, in this process, what happens is that a healthcare professional takes the woman’s egg; and the nucleus is removed. However, this is called an enucleated egg, and then scientists would take a call from the father or another donor a somatic cell; that is where somatic cell nuclear transfer is processed. However, a semantic cell is a body cell; it is a non-reproductive cell placed with the enucleated egg. It has given either chemical treatment or an electric charge, and it fuses them, so it acts as though fertilization has taken place. “According to Shiite perspective, the relative inviolability of the human embryo starts at the time of implantation and attains complete ethical status at ensoulment” (Kiar, ash, 2018, p. 2182)
Furthermore, if the process is successful, it starts to divide cell division. One will have an embryo.furthermore, with reproductive cloning, that new embryo, just like within Vitro fertilization, that a new embryo would be placed in the woman’s womb for implantation reproductive cloning. “Numerous biomedical scientists have contributed to the wide knowledge on the growth of preimplantation human embryos in vitro, now improving every aspect of the form of clinical care” (Edwards, 2003, p. 700). Research cloning or therapeutic cloning is precisely the same procedure many times it has talked about as though it is entirely different. It is the same procedure until an individual has the embryo and then what scientists do with research cloning is that they would harvest the stem cells from that embryo. As a result, the embryo has destroyed the reason for doing that much like embryonic stem cell research; furthermore, it is a form of embryonic stem cell research that scientists use those stem cells. Scientists would use them to find a cure for various diseases or the public’s view in talking to some people in research in this area; the idea is to gain a more excellent knowledge of early human development.
Christians should weigh participation in such efforts:
In this discussion, individuals evaluate these procedures and determine if Christians should or should not agree or disagree with this new scientific research. The short answer to the question is that stem cell cloning should be an individual decision. Scripture guides us in John 3:5 “ Jesus answered, “truly, truly, I say to you unless one is born of water and the spirit, he cannot enter the Kingdom of God” (ESV). Many people have their reasons to be opposed to reproductive cloning, but some will accept the advantages of research cloning and say scientists should go forward. However, in the United States, a couple of states have passed laws that allow for research cloning but prohibit reproductive cloning. However, this is interesting because people allow the creation of a human being through cloning by the state’s laws. However, that human being must be destroyed; imagine that this is a law in the United States; it is not federal law. In individual states, it allows research cloning that requires the destruction of that human being; this should not happen. Therefore, the most fundamental objection to human cloning to research cloning is the destruction of human embryos. “I was astounded by the elegance of the human DNA code and the multiple consequences of those rare careless moments of its copying mechanism” (Collins, 2006, p. 19). They are created to be destroyed. However, there are still problems with risk on human lives and destruction when it comes to reproductive cloning because, in animal trials, one might think of the great success of Dolly, the sheep which was two decades ago.
Furthermore, that success came only after failed attempts. There were 267 failed attempts at cloning before that successful attempt. When it comes to human beings, then are people and scientists and Christians and; decision-makers ready to allow for the death of so many human embryos—the destruction of embryos in clinical trials before perfected this technique. Even if scientists do the risks in animal trials again, one will have the risks of deformed animals of all kinds. Furthermore, are humans willing to risk the repeat of that tragedy things, and should society ask these questions; are humans in a place where they can be willing to take the risk. Another question one might ask is the risk all on ourselves; we risk something for someone else who has no consent because consent cannot be obtained because they have not been created yet. However, this leads to considering that even the reproductive cloning attempt should be halted before it begins. There is some concern that because research cloning is allowed generally in the United States, scientists can perfect human cloning. Furthermore, if it is just research cloning that has created those embryos, somebody will seek to use them for implantation to bring about human being individuals would not know for years what potential implications that human beings might bear because of humans’ interests in cloning.
Collins, F. S. (2006). The language of God: A scientist presents evidence for belief. New York, NY: Free Press. ISBN: 9781416542742.
Edwards, R. G. (2003). United Nations and human cloning: a slender and fortunate defense for biomedical research. Reproductive biomedicine online, 7(6), 700-702.https://doi.org/10.1016/S1472-6483(10)62094-9.
Essed, D. &. (2010). Cloning cultures: the social injustices of sameness. Ethics and racial studies, 25(6), 1066-1082.https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1080/0141987022000009430.
Kiarash, A. (2018). Shiite perspective on the moral status of the early human embryo: A critical review. Journal of religion and health, 57(6), 2182-2192. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s10943-017-0518-6.
Larijani, B. &. (2004). Islamic perspective on human cloning and stem cell research. Transplantation Proceedings, 36(10), 3188-3189.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.10.076.