I’m stuck on a Biology question and need an explanation.
Last week we examined the process of asexual, eukaryotic, cell reproduction, ie. the division of somatic cells AKA Mitosis. In mitotic division one cell, a somatic cell, divides to produce two daughter cells, that are genetic clones of the parental cell. Mitosis is responsible for the growth and maintenance of an multicellular organism. In this weeks lab we will examine the process of Meiosis; the production of cells involved in sexual reproduction.
The cells produced by Meiosis are the gametes AKA the eggs/oocytes (maternal) and the sperm cells (paternal). Unlike cells produced by mitosis the gametes produced by meiosis are NOT clonal copies of the parental cells. Instead gametes are genetically UNIQUE and only contain half the number of chromosomes found in their somatic counterparts. This reduction in chromosome number-from 46 to 23 in the case of human gametes-is critical for successful sexual reproduction- where an ovum and sperm cell fuse to produce a zygote. So, Meiosis while similar to Mitosis in name (Mei-osis and Mit-osis) and general mechanism (both include the Cell cycle and PMAT) it differs in that it
- introduces genetic variability and
- reduces the chromosome number by half-reduction division.
And remember……meiosis produces the gametes only.
In this lab we will examine first the stages on the sexual (human) life cycle-focusing on the roles of mitosis and meiosis in the cycle. Then we will look at the process of gamete production (at the cellular level) and examine the mechanism of meiosis, focusing on how genetic variation is introduced into gametes and how the reduction in chromosome number is achieved. We will also briefly examine what happens when mistakes are made during meiosis -introducing nondisjunction, aneuploidy and chromosome translocation. And finally, we will examine various karyotypes (normal and not)and learn how to use Punnet squares to solve simple genetic problems and predict the outcomes of simple genetic crosses. Sounds like a lot for one lab, but it is nothing we cannot handle together!
To complete this lab I suggest that you:
1. Participate in ZOOM presentation on meiosis and the human life cycle.