Chapter 4 Review
1. Eleven-month-old Allan lives in a very disorganized, low-income environment. He has a
history of maltreatment. Allan’s parents have a violent relationship and it’s not uncommon for
Allan to observe his parents hitting and screaming at each other. As a result of these experiences,
Allan experiences excessive fear and stress. What structures of the brain can be harmed by this
type of fear and stress? Explain and cite findings from a study of children who were maltreated in
2. Identify four emotions that require social awareness. From where does social awareness
3. Describe synchrony and examine its role in infant development. Give three outcomes that may
occur if little or no synchrony is established between the infant and his or her caregiver.
4. Briefly discuss three predictors of secure attachment in infants.
5. One-year-old Mark is playing in the living room with his father. Suddenly, loud music blares
from the apartment next door. Using the concept of “social referencing,” explain how Mark will
respond. Be sure to include what will determine if Mark reacts negatively or positively to the
6. Define proximal and distal parenting practices. What are the outcomes of each type? What
motivates parents to engage in one type over the other.
7. What is a working model, and how does a 1-year-old child develop one? Give an example of how a working model could change from negative to positive over time.