STRESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
Student Name: Yang Shi
Instructors Name: Dr Paul Nash, Timothy Lu
Cardiovascular disorders are the leading cause of morbidity and death and account for more than half of all globally (Gheisari et al.,2018). Although there has been a decline in chronic heart disease mortality in the past decade, the prevalence and incidence of chronic illness are still more prevalent (Pignatelli et al.,2018). Therefore, cardiovascular illnesses are a significant public health concern and an economic problem for both the healthcare system and society (Stoney et al.,2018). The adverse working environment is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (Stoney et al.,2018). It results in unhealthy working conditions due to the physical workload, lengthy working hours, noise, shift work, and social job features, including the occupation position (Gheisari et al.,2018). There is a high correlation between heart diseases and work stress.
A study involving approximately 600,000 men and women from a total of 27 cohort studies in the USA, Europe, and Japan found that work stressors usually occur from job strain and extensive working hours to be linked to reasonably increased risk of occurrence stroke and coronary heart illness (Stoney et al.,2018). Stress results in the stimulation of neuroendocrine retorts to the stressor or unhealthy behaviors such as lack of physical activity, too much alcohol intake and smoking (Pignatelli et al.,2018). Work stress is also derived from a demanding employer, annoying coworkers, rebellious students, angry customers, hazardous condition, long transforms and the ever ending workload. Work stress often contributes to strained interaction with supervisors and peers, resulting in the combined feeling of helplessness and hopelessness, which generates heightened sensitivities to all form of criticism, depression, paranoia affecting one’s health.
Effects of Stress On the Development and Progression of Cardiovascular Disease.
Most adults spend almost half of their day at the workplace; hence, the workplace is an essential setting that promotes workers’ health and wellbeing. Although there exist numerous national and international bodies that ensure and safeguard the health and wellbeing of employees (Pignatelli et al.,2018). The physical, chemical and biological hazards in the work environment are the primary cause of the workers’ psychosocial stress (Stoney et al.,2018). The psychosocial demand and the low individual control results in physiological strain, thus increasing the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Kivimäki & Steptoe (2018) concluded that long working hours can significantly be related to the increased risk of stroke across various socioeconomic groups, men, women and either young and adults. Stoney et al. (2018) contends that the general relative risk of stroke in association with long working hours was 95%
Atherosclerosis that results from the clotting of arterial walls and the growth of plaques is a common cause of cardiovascular illness (Stoney et al.,2018). A study that measured the effects of the carotid intima-media wideness (IMT) in cohort groups carried out non-invasively through the usage of external ultrasound. In young grownups, job stress was cross-sectional linked with increased IMT, mostly in men (Kivimäki & Steptoe, 2018). Another survey that focused on middle-aged adults established a reliable link between workplace stress and carotid IMT in both men and women (Dar et al.,2019). Further work stress most possibly induces biological changes hence indirectly affecting a person lifestyle factors. For instance, workers suffering job strain are likely to be more physically inactive than individuals free from job stress; thus, there is an uncertain relation of work stressors with increased smoking intensity and high alcohol consumption (Dar et al.,2019).
Dar et al. (2019) asserts that the lack of support in the workplace is a significant source of psychosocial stress at the workstation. According to him, work rewards, including income, honor, and career opportunities, shield the undesirable effect of the psychological and physical burden of energies. Thus lack of work rewards are likely to create an imbalance and hence causing illness. Kivimäki & Steptoe (2018) asserts that stress leads to increased oxygen requirement in the body, which tremor the heart blood vessels causing an electrical uncertainty in the heart’s transmission system. Therefore, chronic stress has proved to increase the heartbeat and blood flow, stimulating the heart to work harder to support the blood flow required for overall bodily functions. (Dar et al.,2019). Therefore, stress leads to increased blood pressure, posing a high risk for anxiety and heart attack.