Respond to your peers post
40-year-old black recent immigrant from Africa without health insurance.
Communication and Interview Techniques
To start a health history with any patient I would initially start with developing a rapport and establishing effective communication. With this patient being a recent immigrant of African descent, I do not have much in common with them. I am not necessarily familiar with their customs, or comfort level with medical practitioners especially a practitioner of opposite gender as I have experienced, some cultures value modesty very highly even in the medical setting (Ball et al., 2023). I would start by introducing myself, including my title and responsibilities of my position and assure the patient of the confidentiality of their visit with me. I would then ask if they were comfortable with having a male as their provider, for this discussion I will assume the answer is yes. If not I would attempt to find them another provider they are comfortable with to ensure they are fully disclosing their history so we can better address their needs.
Social Determinants of Health
When considering this patientâ€™s social determinants of health, the glaring issue is the lack of health care. This could lead to a financial burden when considering health care. I would give this patient access to resources such as a financial counselor and social worker, in addition I would be very direct in what is entailed in suggested treatments and medications so that the patient is fully aware of what they are agreeing to (Ball et al., 2023). I would ask questions about access to nutrition and living situations. If the patient seems uneasy with medical professionals, I would speak softly and attempt to foster a welcoming and trusting environment. I would clarify what I am saying and ask follow-up questions to ensure understanding. There may be a language barrier in this case. I would attempt to reiterate my words in a way they understand and avoid medical jargon that may be confusing. If an interpreter is needed, Then the proper steps would be taken to get a private interpreter for this patient (Ball et al., 2023).
Since this patient is a younger adult, I would consider screening for intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence is more often committed against women and should be screened for in all patients of the appropriate age range. I would start by asking simply if the patient is in a relationship, married, or has an intimate partner. The Partner Violence Screen (PVS) would be applicable in this case. I would ask questions such as: Have you been physically hurt by someone within the last year? Do you feel safe in your relationship? Did a previous partner physically hurt you or are they currently making you feel unsafe? I would be very direct and respectful of their answers (Ball et al., 2023). Unfortunately, it has been shown that there is an increased barrier to admission of intimate partner violence in some minorities and immigrant notably from Africa. Some of these countries do not have the same view of partner violence as the United States does and some of this violence is seen as the norm (Hulley et al., 2023). Other targeted health risk assessments could focus on asking if the patient had access to health care before coming to this country, if they had access to vaccines, and general knowledge about the healthcare system in America.
Potential Health-Related Risks
As previously stated, based on this patient, I would ask about knowledge deficits in our healthcare system. This is to ensure the patient can ask the correct questions to get the treatment they need. I would ask them about their living conditions, access to nutrition and access to healthcare in general. This could be related to lack of transportation and financial difficulties. I would ask about their diet, as African Americans are at higher risk for hypertension (McCance & Huether, 2019). I would give them information on low sodium diets if appropriate. I would ask about sexual activity and potential plans to get pregnant since they are of child-bearing age. I would ask about medical history to see if they had been exposed to diseases not common in the United States such as malaria. I would ask about smoking and alcohol use as well as family-history of breast and colon cancer specifically since they are at the age they should begin to be screened if appropriate.
Risk Assessment Tool
I would use the PVS to assess for intimate partner violence. This assesses current and previous exposure to intimate partner violence. If the patient reports there was violence I would be able to provide resources for them accordingly. Resources include social workers, psychiatrists, and general information on the topic.
Patient Specific Questions
- What is the reason for your visit today? Is this a new problem or an existing problem?
- What is your current access to healthcare? Is there a potential for this to change in the near future?
- What questions do you have about healthcare in this country?
- Can you tell me about your sexual history? Are you currently in an intimate relationship?
- Have you ever been physically or emotionally hurt in your current or past relationship?
- Are you planning on getting pregnant?
- What is your access to nutrition?
- What was your access to healthcare in your home country?
- Do you have a personal or family history of any medical conditions?
Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2023). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (10th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Hulley, J., Bailey, L., Kirkman, G., Gibbs, G. R., Gomersall, T., Latif, A., & Jones, A. (2023). Intimate Partner Violence and Barriers to Help-Seeking Among Black, Asian, Minority Ethnic and Immigrant Women: A Qualitative Metasynthesis of Global Research. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 24(2), 1001â€“1015. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248380211050590
McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.