Health Care Regulation Impact 

Assignment : Health Care Regulation Impact 

 

Target: Assess the social determinants of health and health policy to optimize the management of health care delivery

Select a state regulation from a state of your choice on one of the below topics. Prepare an annotated copy of the regulation, including the sections you reviewed to answer the questions in the following format:

Prepare a three (3) to four (4) page written response addressing all information in the following table. Text must be double spaced. Also include a cover page and a reference page in APA Format (these do not count toward the page limit). Review the bolded text in the Class Guidelines section of the syllabus above for formatting requirements.

Highlight five (5) notable parts of the regulation. For each of the parts, describe how the patient, provider, product developer, health care organization and/or payer may be impacted. Remember to write in narrative format except for titles. No more than 15% of direct quotes or paraphrasing are permitted in the document. Use citations and attach the notated regulation. In Week Five, you need to sign up for a topic in the Assignment Three Topic Selection folder in LEO. Unless the professor reaches out to you directly, your chosen topic is approved. Note a maximum of five (5) students may select the same topic. The topics are as follows:

Topic: Alcohol and drug treatment varies widely across states.  Select a state and note the specific regulations about drug treatment facilities. (You can use one from the following NY state, California or Florida) If you have a better state you are free to use it.

CLARIFICATION:  You need to select ONE specific state regulation/law from ONE state that addresses your chosen topic. Then highlight/select FIVE notable parts of the regulation. Then, in a paper format (NOT in the table), answer all the inquiries from the table. That includes analyzing all five parts of the regulation and its impact on the noted stakeholders in the table.

HGMT 310 Assignment #3

Student Name:

Type your name here.

Assignment #3 Title:

Provide a unique short name for the paper and the official title of the state regulation.

Agency Responsible:

Identify the state agency and subunit (such as a bureau or office) responsible for oversight of the regulation.

Incentives and Enforcement:

What enforcements and penalties are noted in the regulation?  Is there training for personnel? Is Technical Assistance (funding, training, resources) provided?

Key Aspect of the Regulation #1:

How does this section of the regulation impact payers/insurers/health plans, health care professionals, health provider organizations, or health product developers?

Key Aspect of the Regulation #2:

How does this section of the regulation impact payers/insurers/health plans, health care professionals, health provider organizations, or health product developers?

Key Aspect of the Regulation #3:

How does this section of the regulation impact payers/insurers/health plans, health care professionals, health provider organizations, or health product developers?

Key Aspect of the Regulation #4:

How does this section of the regulation impact payers/insurers/health plans, health care professionals, health provider organizations, or health product developers?

Key Aspect of the Regulation #5:

How does this section of the regulation impact payers/insurers/health plans, health care professionals, health provider organizations, or health product developers?

Notated Copy of the Rules:

Attach a copy of the regulation that you have marked up.  Underline, highlight or note key sections. Mark them (1), (2), (3), etc. You may use technology to mark up in PDF or print, handwrite and scan the regulation. Specifically:

1.  Print out the regulation, write in notes and/or highlight the printed copy, use a scanner to scan in the document in PDF format, and then attach to the back of your paper, or submit as a separate, second file online.

OR

2. Save the regulation in PDF format (you could copy the text and paste into Word, then Save As a PDF file). Open up Adobe Acrobat and add comments and/or highlights via the Comments function.  Then attach to the back of your paper or submit as a separate, second file online.

http://www.hhs.gov/regulations/

http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/ucm133050.htm

https://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/CLIA/index.html?

redirect=/clia/http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/index.

htmlhttp://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/health/con-certificate-of-need-state-

laws.aspxhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/313360341_A_Critical_Insight_into_Policy_Implementation_and_Implementation_Performance

 

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND SWOT ANALYSIS

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND SWOT ANALYSIS

Health Administration Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. CHAPTER 4 STRATEGIC PLANNING AND SWOT ANALYSIS I skate where the puck is going to be, not where it has been. —Wayne Gretzky Learning Objectives After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to ➤➤ demonstrate the ability to integrate the various disciplines into a comprehensive framework to assess healthcare strategic planning problems; ➤➤ exercise strong individual managerial problem-solving skills through the use of SWOT analysis; ➤➤ formulate strategy and implement change through the use of gap analysis and force field analysis; and ➤➤ discuss multidisciplinary teamwork required within organizations that allows leaders and individual team members to efficiently implement change. 100 EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY AN: 1843079 ; Jeffrey Harrison.; Essentials of Strategic Planning in Healthcare, Second Edition Account: s3642728.main.ehost 00_Harrison (2302).indb 100 2/18/16 4:12 PM Chapter 4: Strategic Planning and SWOT Analysis 101 Key Terms and Concepts ➤➤ Bundled payment ➤➤ Strengths ➤➤ Churn rate ➤➤ SWOT analysis ➤➤ Downstream value ➤➤ Threats ➤➤ Force field analysis ➤➤ Weaknesses ➤➤ Opportunities I n t r o d u c ti o n Healthcare organizations must continually make adjustments to maintain optimal function. The high rate of change in healthcare is shortening the strategic planning window for healthcare organizations that are adapting to healthcare reform (Zuckerman 2014). Leading organizations believe strategic planning is more important than ever and focus on allocating resources for the short and long term, integrating geographically separated organizations, and developing a team that can focus on a clear strategy. As a result, strategic planning is evolving into a more continuous and integrated process. A number of different techniques can be used to determine where adjustments need to be made. One essential technique involves a discussion of an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, commonly called SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis has been used extensively in other industries but has not yet been widely used in healthcare (Makos 2014). Prior to strategic planning, a panel of experts who can assess the organization from a critical perspective perform a SWOT analysis. This panel could comprise senior leaders, board members, employees, medical staff, patients, community leaders, and technical experts. Panel members base their assessment on utilization rates, outcome measures, patient satisfaction statistics, organizational performance measures, and financial status. While based on data and facts, the conclusions drawn from SWOT analysis are the expert opinion of the panel. The annual strategic planning process should incorporate strategic planning, action planning, and operational oversight into an ongoing cycle (Zuckerman 2014). Many of the elements discussed in SWOT analysis are a part of this process, including environmental factors, organizational structure, capital financing, operational planning, and measurement of financial performance. SWOT analysis Examination of an organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses, its opportunities for growth and improvement, and the threats the external environment presents to its survival. D e fi ni t i o n SWOT analysis is an examination of an organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses, its opportunities for growth and improvement, and the threats the external environment EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 101 2/18/16 4:12 PM 102 Essentials of Strategic Planning in Healthcare presents to its survival. Originally designed for use in other industries, it is gaining increased use in healthcare. S t e p s i n SWOT A nalys i s The primary aim of strategic planning is to bring an organization into balance with the external environment and to maintain that balance over time. Organizations accomplish this balance by evaluating new programs and services with the intent of maximizing organizational performance. SWOT analysis is a preliminary decision-making tool that sets the stage for this work. Step 1 of SWOT analysis involves the collection and evaluation of key data. Depending on the organization, these data might include population demographics, community health status, sources of healthcare funding, and the current status of medical technology in the organization. Once the data have been collected and analyzed, the organization assesses its capabilities in these areas. After the data on the organization are collected, in step 2 it is sorted into four categories: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Strengths and weaknesses generally stem from factors in the organization, whereas opportunities and threats usually arise from external factors. Organizational surveys are an effective means of gathering some of this information, such as data on an organization’s finances, operations, and processes (Makos 2014). Exhibit 4.1 illustrates step 2 of SWOT analysis in a hypothetical example Exhibit 4.1 Sample SWOT Matrix External Origin Internal Origin Helpful to Objective Harmful to Objective Strengths Weaknesses • Worldwide reputation • Focus on patient care • Focus on quality and value • Experience in medical imaging • Location of hospital • High-tech facility and equipment • No capital expenditures • Some increase in staffing • Some dissatisfaction by employees working on Saturdays • Increased workload for radiologists already working at peak performance Opportunities Threats • Local community targeted marketing • Improvements in payer mix • Improvements in integrated care • Local competitors offering Saturday MRIs • Loss of potential market share and revenue to competitors • Unknown implications of healthcare reform EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 102 2/18/16 4:12 PM Chapter 4: Strategic Planning and SWOT Analysis 103 of an outpatient clinic considering the value of adding Saturday MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) appointments in response to increasing demand. Step 3 involves the development of a SWOT matrix for each business alternative under consideration. For example, say a hospital is evaluating the development of an ambulatory surgery center (ASC). It is looking at two options: The first is a wholly owned ASC, and the second is a joint venture with local physicians. The hospital’s expert panel would complete a separate SWOT matrix for each alternative. Step 4 involves incorporating the SWOT analysis into the decision-making process to determine which business alternative best meets the organization’s overall strategic plan. Strengths Traditional SWOT analysis views strengths as current factors that have prompted outstanding organizational performance. Examples include the use of state-of-the-art medical equipment, investments in healthcare informatics, and a focus on community healthcare improvement projects. To draw an example from real life, Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit, integrated, multispecialty medical practice with more than 60,000 employees. Mayo is an outstanding organization because it integrates the provision of healthcare through teamwork, the use of real-time patient healthcare information, and the application of advanced technology to provide high-quality care to the patient at an affordable cost (Berry and Beckham 2014). For example, treatment at an academic medical center during the last two years of life for a patient with at least one of nine chronic conditions might cost $93,000, while similar treatment at Mayo would cost $53,000 (Wennberg et al. 2008). Mayo’s strengths also include investing in structural tools such as comprehensive electronic health records, which connect individual clinicians with the latest clinical information available for treating the patient. Patients at Mayo frequently have complex medical conditions that benefit from the pooling of knowledge inside the organization and among the integrated healthcare team. Mayo fosters a culture that considers teamwork essential to delivering patient-centered care. This attitude translates to a unified focus on shared values to achieve a high level of collaboration across the team. This teamwork enhances learning, inspires confidence, and promotes camaraderie among the clinical team. Research suggests that top-tier organizations nurture teamwork and recruit individuals who are likely to be team players (Beckham 2013). For other healthcare organizations, potential organizational strengths might include highly competent personnel, a clear understanding among employees of the organization’s goals, and a focus on quality improvement. Future strengths include growth through mergers and acquisitions as healthcare organizations consolidate into larger organizations with annual revenues in excess of $2 billion (Zuckerman 2014). These larger organizations have the ability to reach economies of scale and reduce costs in the future by 3–5 percent annually. This reduction in costs combined with improved quality results in greater value for the patient. Strengths Current factors that have prompted outstanding organizational performance. EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 103 2/18/16 4:12 PM 104 Essentials of Strategic Planning in Healthcare Weaknesses Weaknesses Organizational factors that increase healthcare costs or reduce healthcare quality. Bundled payment Single payment made to providers or healthcare facilities (or jointly to both) for all services rendered to treat a given condition or provide a given treatment. Weaknesses are organizational factors that increase healthcare costs or reduce healthcare quality. Under healthcare reform, it is increasingly clear that hospitals that seek to “go it alone” will find it difficult to acquire the financial and human resources necessary to build the infrastructure required for coordinated care. The fundamental Affordable Care Act (ACA) model for integrated care shifts the healthcare system from volume-driven fee-for-service care provision to chronic disease management and value-driven episodes of care (see Highlight 4.1). The shift is occurring piecemeal, one payer and one contract at a time—forcing hospitals to operate in both the volume- and value-driven models at the same time. As a result, hospital mergers have increased in order to find strategic partners that can manage the transition from a volume-driven to a value-driven marketplace. In 2000, 52 percent of hospitals were part of multihospital systems, whereas by the end of 2013, 62 percent of hospitals had joined multihospital systems (AHA 2014). As organizations now position themselves for valuebased reimbursement with shared savings and bundled payments (single payments made to providers or healthcare facilities for all services rendered to treat a given condition or provide a given treatment), freestanding hospitals will increasingly be unable to provide integrated healthcare (Lineen 2014). Other hospital weaknesses include aging facilities and a lack of continuity in clinical processes, which can lead to duplication of efforts. Weaknesses can be broken down further to identify underlying causes. For example, disruption in the continuity of care often results from poor communication. This fragmentation leads to inefficiencies in the entire system—weaknesses also breed other weaknesses. Thus, poor communication disrupts the continuity of care. Inefficiencies, in turn, deplete financial and other resources. The growth in integrated delivery systems allows greater efficiency across the continuum of healthcare. As a result, hospitals will need to develop ambulatory care networks and enhance their relationship with multispecialty physician groups. Failing to market ambulatory services in the face of increasing competition could prove to be a fatal weakness as patient referrals migrate to larger health systems. Other common weaknesses include poor use of healthcare informatics, insufficient management training, lack of financial resources, and an organizational structure that limits collaboration with other healthcare organizations. A payer mix that includes large numbers of uninsured patients or Medicaid patients can also negatively affect an organization’s financial performance, and lack of relevant and timely patient data can increase costs and lower the quality of patient care. Opportunities Significant new business initiatives available to a healthcare organization. O p p o rt u n i t i e s Traditional SWOT analysis views opportunities as significant new business initiatives available to a healthcare organization. For example, healthcare organizations could collaborate through the development of healthcare delivery networks, pursue increased funding for EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 104 2/18/16 4:12 PM Chapter 4: Strategic Planning and SWOT Analysis * 105 HIGHLIGHT 4.1 Value-Driven Episodes of Care The US Department of Health & Human Services (HHS) is testing and expanding new healthcare payment models that can improve healthcare quality and reduce its cost. HHS has adopted a framework that categorizes healthcare payment according to how providers receive payment to provide care: • Category 1—Fee-for-service with no link of payment to quality • Category 2—Fee-for-service with a link of payment to quality • Category 3—Alternative payment models built on fee-for-service architecture • Category 4—Population-based payment Value-based purchasing includes payments made in categories 2–4. Moving from category 1 to category 4 involves two shifts: (1) increasing accountability for both quality and total cost of care and (2) a greater focus on population health management as opposed to payment for specific services. Prior to 2011, many Medicare payments to providers were tied only to volume, rewarding providers based on, for example, how many tests they ran, how many patients they saw, or how many procedures they did, regardless of whether these services helped (or harmed) the patient. But under the ACA and because of other changes, by 2014, an estimated 20 percent of Medicare reimbursements had shifted to categories 3 and 4, directly linking providers’ reimbursement to the health and well-being of their patients (CMS 2015). healthcare informatics, partner with communities to develop new healthcare programs, or introduce clinical protocols to improve quality and efficiency. Additional opportunities include obtaining increased reimbursement; instituting value-based purchasing; increasing patient satisfaction; providing new clinical services aligned with population health needs; and delivering integrated, patient-focused care. Healthcare organizations might also improve patient satisfaction by increasing public involvement and ensuring patient representation on boards and committees. Organizations that are successful at using data to improve clinical processes have lower costs and higher-quality patient care. For example, healthcare organizations with Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services (CMS) Hospital Compare quality scores above the 90th national percentile are eligible for CMS pay-for-performance incentives (see Chapter 6 for information on CMS Hospital Compare). Pay-for-performance incentive programs vary payment among providers on the basis of quality and efficiency measures EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 105 2/18/16 4:12 PM 106 Essentials of Strategic Planning in Healthcare so that desired outcomes occur through changed behavior. The greater the number of organizations achieving such scores, the greater patients’ access to quality healthcare. Such scores also enhance an organization’s reputation in the community. While there will always be a certain number of hospitals at the 90th percentile, the bar continues to keep getting higher. Even the best have to continue to improve. T h r e at s Threats Factors that could negatively affect organizational performance. Churn rate Ratio indicating the quantity of new patients relative to existing patients. Threats are factors that could negatively affect organizational performance. Examples include political or economic instability, increasing demand by patients and physicians for expensive medical technology that is not cost-effective, increasing state and federal budget deficits, and increasing pressure to reduce healthcare costs. Additional threats include healthcare funding cuts, the increasing cost of technology, and the potential for reduced access to capital. One of the basic threats to a healthcare organization’s survival is churn rate, the quantity of new patients relative to existing patients. Hospital churn rates can vary, but a good target is 15 percent new patients annually. This rate replaces lost business while maintaining significant growth. A high churn rate can be good news. A low churn rate suggests that an organization is losing potential new patients to its competitors and poses a significant threat if the number of existing patients also declines. Such a decrease in the number of existing patients can come from many sources; patients may move out of the area, die, or age into a cohort requiring a different type of provider. Referral patterns among primary physicians may also change. Low churn rates clearly reflect an organization’s inability to attract new patients, possibly driven by low patient satisfaction. SWOT A n a ly si s : I nternal and E xternal P erspect i ve As shown in Exhibit 4.1, SWOT has an internal as well as an external focus. Strengths and weaknesses are primarily internal in origin. Examples of these internal factors include patient satisfaction, cost per procedure, and level of quality. Conversely, opportunities and threats are primarily external in origin. These could include the level of competition in the market, the availability of integrated care, and the economy of scale as measured by an organization’s market share. Strengths and opportunities are helpful to the objective; weaknesses and threats are harmful to the objective. F o r c e F i e l d A n alysi s Healthcare organizations’ responsibility to implement change that is beneficial to the patient, staff, and organization is increasing. The primary drivers of change in healthcare are the push for quality improvement, the need for customer satisfaction, the desire to improve working conditions, and the diversification of the healthcare workforce. EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 106 2/18/16 4:12 PM Chapter 4: Strategic Planning and SWOT Analysis Force field analysis (see Exhibit 4.2) takes SWOT analysis a step further by identifying the forces driving or hindering change—in other words, the forces driving an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Kurt Lewin’s (1951) force field analysis and force field diagrams are the founding theory for this exercise. Forces that propel an organization toward goal achievement are called helping forces, while those that block progress toward a goal are called hindering forces. After identifying these positive and negative forces, an organization can develop strategies to strengthen the positives and minimize the negatives. For an organization to achieve success, the helping forces must outweigh the hindering forces. When this state is reached, an organization is able to move from its current reality to a preferred future. Effective force field analysis considers not only organizational values but also the needs, goals, ideals, and concerns of individual stakeholders. Individuals who promote change are Probability of Change High +2 +1 0 Force field analysis Examination of the forces helping or hindering organizational change. Exhibit 4.2 Healthcare Model for Force Field Analysis Low –1 107 –2 Transformational Leadership Limited Financial Resources Highly Skilled Personnel Poor Payer Mix with Low Reimbursement Adequate Financial Resources Equilibrium Profitability Marginal Patient Safety Low Healthcare Quality Culture of Innovation Lack of Motivated and Skilled Personnel Patient Perception of Quality Culture Opposed to Change Driving Forces Restraining Forces EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 107 2/18/16 4:12 PM 108 Essentials of Strategic Planning in Healthcare helping forces, whereas those who resist change are hindering forces. As a result, understanding individuals, their attitudes, and the culture of the organization is important. A group performing force field analysis should also identify the key stakeholders in an issue and develop a plan to gain their support. Counteracting organizational inertia (the hindering forces) and creating an environment that proactively supports future change (the helping forces) is vital. Such change is accomplished by modifying current attitudes (“unfreezing” an organization’s perspective on a particular issue), emphasizing the positive aspects of change, and then incorporating the new attitudes in the organization’s processes (“refreezing” the new attitudes so that they and their associated behavior patterns become entrenched in the institution). A participative management style that solicits input from inside the organization is important in implementing change. This approach also fosters the development of consensus within work groups, which helps to refreeze the new behaviors in the organization. G a p A n a ly si s To further refine planning decisions, SWOT analysis can be supplemented by gap analysis, which reveals differences between the organization’s current standing and its target performance. Knowing where to focus efforts improves the efficiency of interventions. Obtaining data that can be used for local benchmarking and improvement is a key step in raising awareness and driving quality improvement. Research shows that while we have seen improvement, there are still gaps of quality care in healthcare practice. For example, in 2010, 287,000 women died worldwide from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Also, during the same year, 3.1 million babies died in their first month of life (Dean et al. 2014). These mortality rates clearly show that improvement is needed in the continuum of care for these patients. Preconception care is a solution that would improve the continuum of care by ensuring ongoing health surveillance and early intervention so that women begin pregnancy in the best possible health. Some potential tools include community-based studies to identify need and availability of resources, education programs, women’s support groups, and counseling on topics such as smoking, obesity, nutrition, diabetes, hypertension, and depression. By closing the gap through preconception care, health professionals can enhance the community’s health status and improve clinical outcomes for women, mothers, and infants. Implementing a gap analysis framework to improve quality of care for patients requires an organization to ask and answer a series of tough questions (Dick, Gaudreault, and Shakir 2010; see Exhibit 4.3). Gaps also exist between people’s expectations of high-quality care and situations in which they receive low-quality healthcare. Low-quality healthcare may be the result of providers’ lack of responsiveness, marginal competence, unreliability, weak communication skills, and breaches of confidentiality. Performance variations also result from trade-offs in the allocation of healthcare resources (Kasti 2013). For example, some healthcare organizations EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 108 2/18/16 4:12 PM Chapter 4: Strategic Planning and SWOT Analysis What to Ask What are we trying to accomplish? How to Answer 109 Exhibit 4.3 Performing a Gap Analysis Identify the target population and improvement goal. Pinpoint gaps and who falls through them. What changes can we make that will result in improvement? Identify the causes and barrier behind the gap. Determine what changes would improve care or close the gap. Plan and implement change. Monitor results. How will we know if a change is an improvement? Collect data. Plot or display the data for analysis. may lack the financial resources to purchase new equipment or hire additional staff when experiencing increased demand because they have allocated their resources for another purpose; as a result, patients experience excessive waiting times. Downstream Revenue Understanding downstream value—the revenue captured by the services a patient uses after his initial visit—can provide a hospital with a better foundation for strategic planning and resource allocation. Although hospitals tend to think in terms of transactions, in the rapidly changing healthcare environment, hospitals must increasingly look beyond the dollars spent on the initial transaction and incorporate downstream revenue. Patients generate two to ten times the value of the initial transaction in the two years following that encounter from sources such as subsequent testing or return visits (Sturm 2009). A full-time physician brings in an average of $1.45 million in net revenue every year to the hospital with which she is affiliated, and some specialties bring in almost double that amount. In 2013, primary care physicians brought in more revenue to their hospitals than specialists did. Primary care physicians generated $1.57 million in downstream revenue for their hospitals, compared to $1.42 million from specialists. This figure did not include indirect revenue they may have created from patient referrals to specialists (Herman 2013). Downstream revenue can provide a strong foundation of resources for future strategic planning. Moreover, as changes in reimbursement drive transactional revenue down, positive patient relationships that produce an ongoing revenue stream from repeated and clinically appropriate visits are critical. Downstream value Revenue captured by the services a patient uses after his initial visit, such as subsequent testing or return visits. EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 109 2/18/16 4:12 PM 110 Essentials of Strategic Planning in Healthcare Summary SWOT analysis is performed prior to the strategic planning process. Ideally, SWOT analysis includes a comprehensive review of the healthcare literature, in-depth data analysis, and input from a panel of SWOT analysis experts. Findings from the analysis are sorted into four categories: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Force field analysis supplements SWOT analysis by identifying the forces driving the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. To refine these analyses even further, gap analysis may be performed to determine where deficiencies exist in an organization’s delivery of care. Such analyses promote (1) a better understanding of barriers to change, innovation, and the transfer of knowledge to practice; (2) improved outcomes; and (3) more efficient allocation of healthcare resources. A review of service lines allows organizations to identify new promotable products. These promotable products should have a high profit margin and downstream revenue opportunity and should allow for low-cost ease of entry as a reasonable payback period. Other signs of market potential are leading indicators in the geographic area such as housing starts, employment rates, and per capita income, which can be harbingers of future activity in a healthcare service line. Exercises Review Questions 1. How does SWOT analysis set the stage for strategic planning? 2. Discuss the use of force field analysis in promoting change in a healthcare organization. 3. Provide examples of how gap analysis can be used to improve the quality of healthcare services. 4. Provide an example of how a hospital’s strategic plan can affect downstream revenue. C o a s ta l M e d i c a l C e n t e r E x e r c i s e s : SWOT A n a ly s i s a n d H o s p i ta l E m e r g e n c y D e pa rt m e n t E x pa n s i o n Using the four steps of SWOT analysis discussed in Chapter 4, create a panel of experts and perform a SWOT analysis for Coastal Medical Center (CMC). Use SWOT analysis to identify factors that are key to getting CMC back on track and moving forward on a new road to success. CMC CEO Richard Reynolds has met with Dr. John Warren, the chief medical officer, and Dr. Debra Jones, the director of the CMC emergency department (ED). They discussed EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 110 2/18/16 4:12 PM Chapter 4: Strategic Planning and SWOT Analysis 111 the quality-level data included in the following report. They also discussed a workload report of the ED service volume for the past year. The data show a high level of ED utilization. The average charge for a hospital ED visit is $1,000 plus $500 in ancillary charges such as laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy. However, the data also suggest that a percentage of the ED patients are leaving without being seen. Mr. Henderson, Dr. Warren, and Dr. Jones are concerned about lost revenue because hospital data show that, in addition to the ED charges, if admitted to the hospital, patients generate an average of $100 in profit per inpatient day. C o a s ta l M e d i c a l C e n t e r Q u e s t i o n s Use the following report to answer these questions: 1. Based on your evaluation of the ED data, do you see any current problems? 2. Based on the data provided, calculate the potential lost revenue for ED visits over the past year. 3. Based on the data provided, calculate the potential lost downstream hospital revenue from ED admissions who walked out over the past year. 4. Make a recommendation to Mr. Henderson, Dr. Warren, and Dr. Jones for how to deal with the ED problem. CMC Hospital Data Annual discharges 40,720 Average length of stay (days) 5.1 Average daily census 423 Inpatient surgeries 13,000 Outpatient surgeries 14,900 Births 2,400 Outpatient visits 245,000 Emergency department (not admitted) 36,400 Emergency department (admitted) 24,700 Total emergency department patients 61,100 EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 111 2/18/16 4:12 PM 112 Essentials of Strategic Planning in Healthcare ED Quality-Level Comparison Score CMC State Average National Average Average (median) time patients spent in ED before admission 340 minutes 282 minutes 272 minutes Average (median) time patients spent between decision to admit and departing for inpatient room 130 minutes 108 minutes 97 minutes Average time patients spent in ED before being sent home 150 minutes 143 minutes 133 minutes Average time patients spent in ED before being seen by a healthcare professional 36 minutes 23 minutes 24 minutes Average time patients with broken bones waited for pain medication 70 minutes 56 minutes 55 minutes Percentage of patients who left ED ➤ before being seen 4% 2% 2% Percentage of patients who came to ED with stroke symptoms and received brain scan results within 45 minutes 55% 67% 61% Measure References American Hospital Association (AHA). 2014. “Fast Facts on US Hospitals.” Updated January 2015. www.aha.org/research/rc/stat-studies/fast-facts.shtml. Beckham, D. 2013. “Building a Team of Teams.” Hospitals & Health Networks. Published February 19. www.hhnmag.com/Daily/2013/Feb/beckham021913-4960002469. Berry, L. L., and D. Beckham. 2014. “Team-Based Care at Mayo Clinic: A Model for ACOs.” Journal of Healthcare Management 59 (1): 9–13. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). 2015. “Better Care. Smarter Spending. Healthier People: Paying Providers for Value, Not Volume.” Published January 26. EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 112 2/18/16 4:12 PM Chapter 4: Strategic Planning and SWOT Analysis 113 www.cms.gov/Newsroom/MediaReleaseDatabase/Fact-sheets/2015-Fact-sheetsitems/2015-01-26-3.html. Dean, S., Z. Lassi, A. Imam, and Z. Bhutta. 2014. “Preconception Care: Closing the Gap in the Continuum of Care to Accelerate Improvements in Maternal, Newborn and Child Health.” Reproductive Health 11 (Suppl. 3): S1. Dick, S., S. Gaudreault, and F. Shakir. 2010. “Implementing a Gap Analysis Framework to Improve Quality of Care for Your Patients.” US Agency for International Development. Accessed August 15, 2015. www.usaidassist.org/sites/assist/files/hci.ghc_gap_➤ framework_workbook.14jun10_1.pdf. Herman, B. 2013. “Which Physicians Generate the Most Revenue for Hospitals?” Becker’s Hospital Review. Published May 8. www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-physicianrelationships/which-physicians-generate-the-most-revenue-for-hospitals.html. Kasti, M. 2013. “Model for Healthcare Performance: GAP #1—The Strategy Gap.”➤ Mo Kasti.com (blog). Published November 9. www.mokasti.com/model-for-healthcare-➤ performance-gap-1-the-strategy-gap/. Lewin, K. 1951. Field Theory in Social Science: Selected Theoretical Articles. Edited by D. Cartwright. New York: Harper & Row. Lineen, J. 2014. “Hospital Consolidation: ‘Safety in Numbers’ Strategy Prevails in Preparation for a Value-Based Marketplace.” Journal of Healthcare Management 59 (5): 315–17. Makos, J. 2014. “How to Conduct SWOT Analysis in Healthcare Organizations.” Pestle Analysis. Published October 28. http://pestleanalysis.com/swot-analysis-in-healthcare. Sturm, A. 2009. “Five New Ways to Look at Generating Revenue.” Healthcare Financial Management 63 (11): 68–74. Wennberg, J. E., E. S. Fisher, D. C. Goodman, and J. S. Skinner. 2008. Tracking the Care of Patients with Severe Chronic Illness: The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care 2008. Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice Center for Health Policy Research. www.dartmouthatlas.org/downloads/atlases/2008_Chronic_Care_Atlas.pdf. Zuckerman, A. 2014. “Successful Strategic Planning for a Reformed Delivery System.” Journal of Healthcare Management 59 (3): 168–72. EBSCOhost – printed on 11/4/2022 7:33 PM via TRIDENT UNIVERSITY. All use subject to https://www.ebsco.com/terms-of-use 00_Harrison (2302).indb 113 2/18/16 4:12 PM

 Cancer Risk and Prevention Course number: PHC335 CRN: 15772

 Cancer Risk and Prevention Course number: PHC335 CRN: 15772

Write a short essay to discuss risk factors associated with Cancer and prevention methods in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Support your answer with evidence and examples) i. What is magnitude of Cancer in KSA? (2 marks) ii. Mention the most types of cancers prevalence in Assignment title or task: KSA. (1 mark) (You can write a question) iii. What are the main causes and contributory factors of Cancer in KSA? (3 marks) iv. What are the interventions applied to prevention these risk factors in KSA? (4 marks) Student name: Student ID: Submission date: Instructor’s name: Dr. Eltagi A. M. Abdalla Grade: …. Out of 10 Instructions for submission: • • • • • • • • Assignment must be submitted with properly filled cover sheet (Name, ID, CRN, Submission date) in word document, Pdf is not accepted. Length of the paper assignment will be 500-1000 words write-up should be 1 to 2 (Minimum one page). Text size 12-Times New Roman with 1.5-line spacing. Heading should be Bold The text color should be Black Do proper paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism with proper references/sources. Minimum 5 references ‘’References must be in APA style’’ Don’t forget the in-text citations

insurance and managed care

 healthcare categories  in the U.S.

Instructions

Insurance and managed care continue to be an area of concern for consumers, healthcare organizations, and insurance companies as the U.S. healthcare system continue to struggle in meeting healthcare needs. There are various, pressing issues regarding insurance and managed care. This assessment will provide an opportunity to explore one of the issues in greater depth through research and writing an essay.

  1. Utilization and quality
  2. Costs, cost-savings
  3. Reimbursement methodologies and incentives
  • Write a 5 to 7-page paper/essay including the following about the selected healthcare category:
  1. Summary of the current state of the selected category of healthcare in the U.S.
  2. Explanation of at least 2 specific issues the U.S. struggles with within the selected category
  3. Description of 3 potential solutions that would improve the selected category in the U.S. healthcare system
  4. Identification of at least 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of each solution presented
  5. From the 3 identified solutions, select the preferred solution and provide a rationale for the selection.

Sexuality & Human Behavior Study

Sexuality & Human Behavior Study

The Costs: Birth Control & Child Care

Part I: Using one or both of the following resources, research 3 different methods of birth control and respond to the items below. NOTE: Links to these websites are also available on Blackboard. Bedsider: https://www.bedsider.org/methods Planned Parenthood: https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/birth-cont…

1. Provide the following information for EACH of the three methods you selected:

a. Name of Method

b. Type of Method (hormonal, barrier, LARC, fertility awareness, sterilization, EC, other)

c. How is it used?

d. How effective is it?

e. How much does it cost (per year)?

f. Does it protect against STIs?

g. Potential side effects or problems with this method?

h. What is your opinion of this method?

Resources:

https://www.bedsider.org/methods

https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/birth-control

https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/infertility/

https://www.self.com/story/childfree-by-choice-women

https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/pregnancy-tests

https://www.cnn.com/specials/every-mother-counts

babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-labor-and-birth_3658872.bc

APA (2013) DSM-5 categories of mental disorders

APA (2013) DSM-5 categories of mental disorders

The purpose of this performance task is to identify and read a nonfiction book related to a specific mental health disorder so that you can gain insight into the experience of the mental disorder from the perspective of the individual and/or his or family.

This book may not be a textbook, reference book, or self help book. Additionally, the book may not book that you have read or will read for any other MSU-M course. The first document provides a list of suggested books that are related to specific APA (2013) DSM-5 categories of mental disorders.

The second document is the scoring rubric for this performance task. Carefully Be sure to provide a citation every time refer to the content of the book. Provide quotation marks, the author(s), year, and page or paragraph number(s) for direct quotes of three or more consecutive words and the authors(s), and year for all other citations. Be sure to provide the reference for the book. Failure to properly cite the work of others and provide the references is plagiarism.

An act of plagiarism will result in a 0 on this performance task and a one letter grade deduction from you final course grade. review the scoring rubric prior to reading the book you plan to review and again prior to writing your book review.

Body Composition Assignment The goal of this assignment is to assess your waist-to-hip ratio, and BMI, and to determine your risk cardiovascular disease and body composition classification.

Body Composition Assignment The goal of this assignment is to assess your waist-to-hip ratio, and BMI, and to determine your risk cardiovascular disease and body composition classification.

All items for you to complete will be on t tab. Waist and Hip Circumferences Perform the waist circumference measurement first, followed by the hip circumference measureme You will want to record the circumference values in centimeters. To determine the waist-to-hip ratio divide the waist circumference by the hip circumference (Waist Circumference / Hip Circumference) Record each value below. Once you have completed the measurements and have determined the ra use the table below your recorded measurements to determine your waist-to-hip ratio classification Waist Circumference: Place a flexible measuring tape at the narrowest point of the waist (usually immediately below the r If the subject’s waist does not have a narrow point, place it at the level of the navel. Take the measurement at the end of an exhaled breath. (Refer to the video listed in the online learning resou section this week). Hip Circumference: Place a flexible measuring tape around the maximum circumference of the buttocks. (Refer to the vi listed in the online learning resource section this week). Waist-To-Hip Ratio: Divide the waist circumference by the hip circumference (make sure the units for both measuremen match – for instance, use inches OR centimeters). Record of Waist and Hip Circumferences Waist: Hip: Waist-to-Hip Ratio: Classification: *See the Table below for Classification Men 20-29 years 30-39 years Waist-to-Hip Circumference Ratio Standards for Men and Women Risk Low Moderate High 0.90 ow to convert the height to e BMI by continuing to follow termine your BMI classification. Height ta you calculated above. measurement? Why or why to improve his/her waist-to- vascular risk and body

Assignment Content As a team, discuss and compare your chosen organizations selected in this week’s individual assignment, Organizational Management Performance Table, to complete this presentation.As a team, create an 8- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation (not counting the title or reference slides) with detailed speaker notes of at least 100 words per slide in which you compare and contrast the organizations selected by each learning team member. Your presentation should: Describe ways each organization will communicate with leadership to ensure alignment of organizational goals and gain buy-in from staff to achieve compliance with the standards and requirements issued by regulatory and accreditation bodies. Include each team member’s completed table as an appendix to your presentation. Cite at least 3 peer-reviewed, scholarly, or similar references and your textbook to support your assignment. 3 attachments

Assignment Content

  1. As a team, discuss and compare your chosen organizations selected in this week’s individual assignment,

    Assignment Content

    1. As a team, discuss and compare your chosen organizations selected in this week’s individual assignment, Organizational Management Performance Table, to complete this presentation.As a team, create an 8- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation (not counting the title or reference slides) with detailed speaker notes of at least 100 words per slide in which you compare and contrast the organizations selected by each learning team member.
      Your presentation should:

      • Describe ways each organization will communicate with leadership to ensure alignment of organizational goals and gain buy-in from staff to achieve compliance with the standards and requirements issued by regulatory and accreditation bodies.

      Include each team member’s completed table as an appendix to your presentation.
      Cite at least 3 peer-reviewed, scholarly, or similar references and your textbook to support your assignment.

     

    Performance Table, to complete this presentation.As a team, create an 8- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation (not counting the title or reference slides) with detailed speaker notes of at least 100 words per slide in which you compare and contrast the organizations selected by each learning team member.
    Your presentation should:

    • Describe ways each organization will communicate with leadership to ensure alignment of organizational goals and gain buy-in from staff to achieve compliance with the standards and requirements issued by regulatory and accreditation bodies.

    Include each team member’s completed table as an appendix to your presentation.
    Cite at least 3 peer-reviewed, scholarly, or similar references and your textbook to support your assignment.

 

Abraham Flexner

In a three-page, double spaced, APA formatted paper with a minimum of three references, please answer the following questions.

Abraham Flexner is often called the “father” of modern medical education.  Why?

How did Abraham Flexner’s contributions advance the state of medical education?

In your opinion, what impact did Abraham Flexner’s report have on the U.S. healthcare system today?

  • Please incorporate the answers to these questions in a well-developed, collegiately style paper (meaning: do not answer each question individually).  Blend the answers to these questions into your three-page paper.

IHP 430 Final Project

IHP 430 Final Project

IHP 430 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric Overview As a student of healthcare quality management, it is vital that you are able to identify problems that arise in healthcare organizations and propose strategies for their improvement. A critical part of this process requires you to be familiar with quality and accreditation standards and navigate the communication channels of the organization. For your summative assignment, you will identify a departmental problem within a healthcare organization and develop a collaborative performance improvement initiative to address it. Ideally, the proposed evidence-based solution will serve to improve the departmental problem, thus contributing to the overall success of the healthcare organization. The project is divided into three milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two, Four, and Six. The final product will be submitted in Module Seven. In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes: • • • • • Evaluate appropriate methods of healthcare data collection and interpretation for informing organizational decision making Assess healthcare performance improvement initiatives for addressing gaps in organizational performance Evaluate requirements of current quality and safety initiatives for how they promote the culture of safety in healthcare organizations Formulate communication and teamwork strategies in quality management that engage diverse stakeholders within healthcare organizations Evaluate information management systems and patient care technologies that promote healthcare quality Prompt Begin by identifying an organizational problem within your own workplace healthcare setting or a hypothetical healthcare organization. Propose an initiative that addresses this chosen problem, utilizing evidence-based literature and quality standards. If you choose a problem in your workplace, be sure to utilize data from that healthcare organization; if you have created a hypothetical healthcare organization, you may use a public domain database with instructor permission. As this is a scholarly initiative, this assignment must adhere to all APA requirements and formatting and include peer-reviewed and evidence-based sources to support any and all claims. Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: I. What Is the Organizational Problem? a) Provide the organizational problem that you have chosen. How does this problem fail to meet quality or other regulatory requirements? b) Articulate organizational challenges posed by the problem (e.g., interdepartmental conflicts, communication failure, budgeting issues). II. Evidence-Based Support 1 a) Provide data that supports the existence of the problem. You may utilize public sources to find data related to your selected problem. b) How has this problem been addressed in the past? What information management systems or patient care technologies have been utilized when addressing this problem? Be sure to use peer-reviewed literature to support your answer. c) Discuss relevant accreditation standards, safety standards, compliance standards, and quality initiatives. How do these standards promote a culture of safety within the department? Be sure to cite the appropriate standards within your answer. III. Performance Improvement Initiative a) Propose an initiative that will address this problem within the department of your chosen healthcare organization. What specific relevant quality standard will this quality initiative address? b) Describe the type of data that will reveal a quality outcome. IV. Implementation of the Plan in the Organization a) How will this implementation plan be communicated among departments? b) How will the data be displayed and shared with the organization? c) If the plan for this initiative was implemented, what do you believe would be the hypothetical effect(s) on patient care outcomes? How will health information systems support those improvements in patient care? d) What do you think the hypothetical effect of the quality or performance plan would be on the culture of safety within the organization? V. Success of the Performance Improvement Plan a) If this initiative is successful, how would the organization monitor the financial implications? b) How would the current information management systems contribute to the success of your plan? c) What current organizational processes will help the plan be successful? d) How will the plan be communicated among departments? How will this communication help team members commit to the performance improvement plan? Milestones Milestone One: Identify Organizational Problem In Module Two, first, you will identify a problem in a healthcare organization. You may use a problem from your organization or a problem from a fictional organization. This milestone is graded with the Milestone One Rubric. Milestone Two: Initiative Proposal In Module Four, you will build upon the work you completed on milestone one. In this milestone, you will propose an improvement plan that focuses on the problem you selected in Milestone One. If you chose a problem in your workplace, be sure to use data from that healthcare organization; if you created a hypothetical healthcare organization, you might use a public domain database with instructor permission. Next, you will develop an implementation plan for the 2 problem that you are focusing on. Then, you will discuss the predicted success of the performance improvement plan after implementation. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Two Rubric. Milestone Three: Implementation of Performance Initiative In Module Six, you will implement your performance improvement plan. Also, you will discuss what success of the performance improvement plan will look like. If you choose a problem in your workplace, be sure to use data from that healthcare organization. If you created a hypothetical healthcare organization, you might use a public domain database with instructor permission. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Three Rubric. Final Submission: Organizational Performance Initiative In Module Seven, you will submit your final project. The final project should be a complete, polished paper containing all of the items listed on the grading rubric. Your paper should show that you have applied all of the instructor feedback. This submission is graded with the Final Project Rubric. Deliverables Milestone Deliverable Module Due Grading One Identify Organizational Problem Two Graded separately; Milestone One Rubric Two Initiative Proposal Four Graded separately; Milestone Two Rubric Three Implementation of Performance Initiative Six Graded separately; Milestone Three Rubric Final Submission: Organizational Performance Initiative Seven Graded separately; Final Project Rubric Final Project Rubric Guidelines for Submission: Your organizational performance initiative should be 8–10 pages in length; however, the quality of this submission is much more important than the length. All resources must be appropriately cited in APA format. Critical Elements Problem: Provide Exemplary (100%) Meets “Proficient” criteria and includes insightful detail about how the problem fails to meet quality or regulatory requirements Proficient (85%) Comprehensively provides details about how the problem fails to meet quality or regulatory requirements 3 Needs Improvement (55%) Provides details about how the problem fails to meet quality or regulatory requirements but with gaps in detail or logic Not Evident (0%) Does not provide details about how the problem fails to meet quality or regulatory requirements Value 4.5 Critical Elements Problem: State Support: Provide Support: Addressed Exemplary (100%) Meets “Proficient” criteria and offers greater depth of information regarding the organizational challenges posed by the problem Meets “Proficient” criteria and data provided demonstrates nuanced understanding of the problem Meets “Proficient” criteria and description includes insightful detail regarding how this problem has been addressed in the past Support: Discuss Meets “Proficient” criteria and offers professional insights concerning how accreditation, safety, compliance, and quality standards promote a culture of safety Performance: Propose Meets “Proficient” criteria and proposal demonstrates a nuanced insight into the relationship between the performance improvement plan and the quality standard being addressed Meets “Proficient” criteria and demonstrates great insight into the type of data that will reveal a quality outcome Performance: Describe Proficient (85%) Clearly states organizational challenges posed by the problem Needs Improvement (55%) States organizational challenges posed by the problem, but articulation is not clear Not Evident (0%) Does not state organizational challenges posed by the problem Value 6 Provides data that supports the existence of the problem Provides data but data does not fully support existence of the problem Does not provide data or data provided does not support existence of the problem 6 Thoroughly describes how this problem has been addressed in the past, including the information management systems or patient care technologies utilized, and supports answer with peerreviewed literature Clearly discusses relevant accreditation, safety, and compliance standards, as well as quality initiatives, including how these standards promote a culture of safety within the department, and cites appropriate standards Proposes a performance improvement plan to address the chosen problem, including the quality standard being addressed Describes how this problem has been addressed in the past but with gaps in detail, and supports answer but support does not include peerreviewed literature or is irrelevant Does not describe how the problem has been addressed in the past or does not support answer 6 Discusses accreditation, safety, and compliance standards, as well as quality initiatives, but with gaps in detail or clarity, and cites standards but citations are irrelevant or inappropriate Does not discuss accreditation, safety, compliance, and quality standards and does not cite standards 9 Proposes a performance improvement plan to address the chosen problem but proposal has gaps in detail or logic Does not propose a performance improvement plan 4.5 Accurately describes the type of data that will reveal a quality outcome Describes the type of data that will reveal a quality outcome Does not describe the type of data that will reveal a quality outcome 6 4 Critical Elements Implementation: Communication Implementation: Data Implementation: Initiative Implementation: Effect Success: Financial Success: Information Exemplary (100%) Meets “Proficient” criteria and description is exceptionally clear in how the implementation plan will be communicated among departments Meets “Proficient” criteria and choices of how the data will be displayed and shared with the organization demonstrate nuanced insight into communication within the chosen healthcare organization Meets “Proficient” criteria and offers reasoning concerning the hypothetical effects of the initiative on patient care outcomes Meets “Proficient” criteria and offers reasoning concerning the hypothetical effect of the quality plan on the culture of safety within the organization Meets “Proficient” criteria and offers reasoning pertaining to how the organization will monitor the financial implications if this initiative is successful Meets “Proficient” criteria and hypothesis demonstrates nuanced insight into the relationship between information management systems and performance improvement initiatives Proficient (85%) Thoroughly describes how the implementation plan will be communicated among departments Needs Improvement (55%) Describes how the implementation plan will be communicated among departments but description has gaps in detail Not Evident (0%) Does not describe how the implementation plan will be communicated among departments Value 6 Accurately describes how the data will be displayed and shared with the organization Describes how the data will be displayed and shared with the organization but description is inaccurate Does not describe how the data will be displayed and shared with the organization 6 Comprehensively describes the hypothetical effects of this initiative on patient care outcomes, including how health information systems support improvements in patient care Comprehensively describes the hypothetical effect of the quality plan on the culture of safety within the organization Describes the hypothetical effects of this initiative on patient care outcomes but description is cursory Does not describe the hypothetical effects of the initiative on patient care outcomes 6 Does not describe the hypothetical effect of the quality plan on the culture of safety within the organization 9 Comprehensively describes the how the organization will monitor the financial implications if this initiative is successful Describes the hypothetical effect of the quality plan on the culture of safety within the organization but description is cursory Describes how the organization will monitor the financial implications if this initiative is successful but description is cursory Does not describe how the organization will monitor the financial implications if this initiative is successful 4.5 Logically hypothesizes how the current information management systems would contribute to the success of this plan Hypothesizes how the current information management systems would contribute to the success of this plan but hypothesis is illogical Does not hypothesize how the current information management systems would contribute to the success of this plan 6 5 Critical Elements Success: Processes Success: Communication Articulation of Response Exemplary (100%) Meets “Proficient” criteria and provides nuanced insight into the organizational processes that will help the plan be successful Meets “Proficient” criteria and provides keen insight into how communication will help team members commit to the performance improvement plan Proficient (85%) Accurately describes the organizational processes that will help the plan be successful Needs Improvement (55%) Describes what organizational processes will help the plan be successful but description is inaccurate Not Evident (0%) Does not describe what organizational processes will help the plan be successful Value 4.5 Comprehensively explains how the plan will be communicated among departments and analyzes how that communication will help team members commit to the performance improvement plan Does not explain how the plan will be communicated among departments or analyze how that communication will help team members commit to the performance improvement plan 6 Submission is free of errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, and organization and is presented in a professional and easy-toread format Submission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization Explains how the plan will be communicated among departments and analyzes how that communication will help team members commit to the performance improvement plan but patterns are not interdepartmental or analysis is cursory Submission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideas Submission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas 10 Total 100% 6 1 IHP 430 Milestone One Denise Vazquez Southern New Hampshire University 2 I. What is the Organizational Problem? A. Provide Medical errors are a public health care concern because every patient is vulnerable to their incidence and prevalence. In New Vale Clinic, physicians have been covering up errors that occur in medicine prescription, administration, and healthcare complications resulting from such errors. This goes against the report by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality on error prevention and quality improvement in healthcare (Rodziewicz et al, 2022). Medical error is a quality indicator, and failure to report cases of medical error is among the root causes of preventable cases of health complications due to wrong prescriptions and medication. B. State Leadership dynamics in the organization are a contributing factor to medication errors. Teams perceive the impact of leadership as a determining factor in their success in delivering quality care. When leadership dynamics are factored in, tension, frustration, and burnout become negative mitigating elements that lead to poor patient care delivery, characterized by several medical errors in the institution (Roberts, 2020). II. Evidence-Based Support A. Errors that occur either do or do not harm patients. Medical errors are the third leading cause of death in the United States following heart disease and cancer. A study by Johns Hopkins indicated that almost 250,000 Americans lose their lives 3 yearly because of a medical error. This is a crude approximation because of the wide range of medical errors that can occur. B. Prevention measures have been implemented in the past to address medical errors. These measures took a significant turn after the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) report To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System (Ackley et al., 2019). Guidelines on how to avoid medical errors by AHRQ, and bar code readers to promote correct medication have been used in the past to reduce the incidence and prevalence of medical errors (Sorrell, 2017). C. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ has been at the forefront of pushing quality initiatives, including sponsoring hundreds of patient safety research and implementation projects to prevent and reduce medical errors (Rodziewicz et al, 2022). 4 References Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing diagnosis handbook E-book: An evidence-based guide to planning care. Elsevier Health Sciences. Roberts, R. (2020). How Leadership Dynamics in Health Care Can Contribute to Medical Errors. Ohiostate.pressbooks.pub. Retrieved 11 September 2022, from https://ohiostate.pressbooks.pub/pubhhmp6615/chapter/how-leadership-dynamics-inhealth-care-can-contribute-to-medical-errors/. Rodziewicz, T. L., Houseman, B., & Hipskind, J. E. (2022). Medical error reduction and prevention. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. IHP 430 Milestone Two Denise Vazquez Southern New Hampshire University Performance: Propose an Initiative First, teach on-duty physicians and nurses to reduce medical errors. Then-posted health staff will be separated into two groups and taught in hour-long interactive sessions, two in consecutive weeks. Using multimedia aids, they will learn pharmacological characteristics, doses, suitable preparations, intervals, and routes of administration of numerous newborn medicines. During training, they will get a typical medication list drawn from pharmacology textbooks. This will be presented at physicians’ and nurses’ workstations for medicine prescription and administration. The second strategy is to emphasize accountability. Physicians will sign prescriptions and nurses monitoring sheets. The QI team will double-check medications weekly following morning rounds using the same checklist. The initial challenge will be convincing residents and nursing staff to sign fully. Performance: Discuss Data Determinants of Success This program will enhance statistics like an organization’s annual money loss. When a claim is lacking information or the coding is erroneous, the organization loses money, which is bad for its success. If we look at the number of medical mistakes that occur each year and how much they cost organizations like Medicare, we can see the economic effects of medical errors on organization performance (Council For Medicare Integrity, 2018). The question; How will medical mistakes reduce after 3 months of software implementation? will inform us how successful the effort is and whether any adjustments are needed to make it work. This investigation’s results may be incorporated into the software to help hospitals reduce medical errors. Another data determinant is comparing before and after my initiative’s implementation. Thus, the outcomes and data may be more accurate. Implementation: Describe Interdepartmental Communication Channels A complete staff meeting is one technique to explain my idea to the team. The medical/coding section fills and sends out claims, but everything is a collaborative effort. If a patient enters the institution with erroneous or missing information, someone at the front desk committed a mistake that was unnoticed by other departments. Implementation: Describe the Manner of Data Interpretation I’ll use a bar graph to compare data before and after implementing my project. Since I’m comparing two items over a year, a bar graph is preferable. “Bar graphs compare groupings or follow changes over time. Bar graphs are ideal for measuring major changes over time (National Center for Education Statistics, n.d.). secondly, line graph will be used to show the annual loss of money and the reduction in medical mistakes after 3 months of initiative execution. Line graphs show short- and long-term changes. Line graphs are preferable for these determinants since the change is over a shorter time frame. Implementation: Effects of Initiative on Patient Care Outcomes My effort will improve patient treatment. Patients are happier with services as medical mistakes are declining. Medical mistakes may affect how patients feel about the hospital, which is bad since they aren’t happy with the services. Front-office concerns like medical and scheduling may affect how patients see medical interactions and rate them online. Providers should take note (Bryant, 2018). Non-insured individuals must pay out of pocket for treatments, therefore medical mistakes might cost them hundreds of dollars to resolve. Implementation: Effect of Quality Initiatives on Culture of Safety My idea will assist the organization’s safety culture by increasing patient care. Since medical errors have been reduced, professionals are more cautious about patients and prioritize them more since they no longer need to worry about making mistakes. This helped the institution boost patient satisfaction, which is positive. In a medical institution, one department’s dysfunction might affect the whole complex. This program will change things in a favorable direction, which is good for a facility. References Bryant, M. (2018, October 10). Patient satisfaction is up, but billing woes can hurt online reviews, survey shows. Healthcare Dive. https://www.healthcaredive.com/news/patientsatisfaction-is-up-but-billing-woes-canhurt-online-reviews-surve/539300/ Council For Medicare Integrity. (2018). Error Rate Drops, but Medicare Still Lost $31.6 Billion to Preventable Billing Errors in FY2018 | Council for Medicare Integrity. Medicareintegrity.Org. http://medicareintegrity.org/error-rate-drops-but-medicarestilllost-31-6-billion-to-preventable-billing-errors-in-fy2018/ National Center for Education Statistics. (n.d.). How Do I Choose Which Type of Graph to Use? – NCES Kids’ Zone. Nces.Ed.Gov. Retrieved 2020, from https://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/help/user_guide/graph/whentouse.asp 1 Success of the Performance Improvement Plan Denise Vazquez Southern New Hampshire University 2 The success of the Performance Improvement Plan Financial Preventable medical errors cost healthcare organizations a lot of money in terms of capitated payment arrangements. That’s because errors may increase the total cost of care so that it ultimately exceeds the fixed payment the organization will receive (Ahsani-Estahbanati et al., 2021). Additionally, for value-based care, failure to meet some quality expectations leads to compensated care needs (Ahsani-Estahbanati et al., 2021). With the proposed initiative to eliminate the onset and prevalence of medical errors. As a result, the expectation is that the cost associated with medical errors will reduce significantly. Information Management Systems Patient safety is a primary concern for all healthcare organizations. As part of achieving that goal, health information management systems are used to collect and analyze data on safe patient care delivery progress to facilitate information-based quality improvement metrics (Hutton et al., 2017). In the same way, the information management systems will be used to collect data on previous initiatives on preventing medical errors and compare them with other organizations to determine the chances of achieving the goal of the current initiative. Current Organizational Processes The organization is guided by the mission to uphold patient safety through the provision of resources. Resource availability is critical in determining the success rate of key initiatives. Nurses have access to patient information and can request the resources they need to identify atrisk patients and the strategies they can implement at the individual or organizational level to deliver safe care. 3 Communication of the Plan The teams will be notified through memos and the organization’s official communication platform. Most healthcare organizations still rely on memos to pass out key messages for official purposes. Apart from that, messages will be communicated through the company’s email address to reach out to those unable to access the memos. In other cases, short messages will be sent to specific teams through WhatsApp and other compatible media. 4 References Ahsani-Estahbanati, E., Doshmangir, L., Najafi, B., Akbari Sari, A., & Sergeevich Gordeev, V. (2021). Incidence rate and financial burden of medical errors and policy interventions to address them: a multi-method study protocol. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, 22(2), 244-252. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10742-021-00261-9 Hutton, K., Ding, Q., & Wellman, G. (2017). The Effects of Bar-coding Technology on Medication Errors: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal Of Patient Safety, 17(3), e192-e206. https://doi.org/10.1097/pts.0000000000000366