Power Analysis Response

According to Gray and Grove (2021). Power is the probability that a statistical test will detect an effect when it actually exists. Power is the inverse of type II error and it is the probability of retaining the null (Gray & Grove, 2021, p.636). Greenland et al. (2016) explains that every method of statistical inference depends on a complex web of assumptions about how data were collected and analyzed. And how the analysis results were selected for presentation. The full set of assumptions is embodied in a statistical model that underpins the method.

This model is a mathematical representation of data variability, and thus ideally would capture accurately all sources of such variability. The power of a test to detect a correct alternative hypothesis is the pre-study probability. That the test will reject the test hypothesis (e.g., the probability that P will not exceed a pre-specified cut-off such as 0.05). The corresponding pre-study probability of failing to reject the test hypothesis when the alternative is correct is one minus the power. Also known as the Type-II or beta error rate (Greenland et al., 2016)

null hypothesis

According to Shreffler (2021), a type I error occurs when in research when we reject the null hypothesis. And erroneously state that the study found significant differences when there indeed was no difference. In other words. It is equivalent to saying that the groups or variables differ when, in fact, they do not or having false positives. A concept closely aligned to type II error is statistical power. Statistical power is a crucial part of the research process that is most valuable in the design and planning phases of studies. Though it requires assessment when interpreting results. Power is the ability to correctly reject a null hypothesis that is indeed false.  Unfortunately, many studies lack sufficient power and should be presented as having inconclusive findings (Shreffler, 2021).

Shreffler (2021) also mentions that Power is the probability of a study to make correct decisions or detect an effect when one exists. The power of a statistical test is dependent on the level of significance set by the researcher, the sample size, and the effect size or the extent to which the groups differ based on treatment. Statistical power is critical for healthcare providers to decide how many patients to enroll in clinical studies. Power is strongly associated with sample size; when the sample size is large, power will generally not be an issue. Thus, when conducting a study with a low sample size, and ultimately low power, researchers should be aware of the likelihood of a type II error. By limiting type I and type II errors, healthcare providers can ensure that decisions based on research outputs are safe for patients (Shreffler, 2021).

References

Gray, J., & Grove, S. K. (2021). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

Greenland, S., Senn, S. J., Rothman, K. J., Carlin, J. B., Poole, C., Goodman, S. N., & Altman, D. G. (2016). Statistical tests, p values, confidence intervals, and power: A guide to misinterpretations. European Journal of Epidemiology31(4), 337–350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-016-0149-3

Shreffler, J. (2021). Type i and type ii errors and statistical power. StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557530/.

LEGAL HERMENEUTICS

LEGAL HERMENEUTICS

Instructions: Answer three (3) of the following six (6) questions. You can use primary and secondary sources to develop your answers. Be sure to follow pertinent bibliographical rules and formats. Your answers will be evaluated by their clarity, concision and subject matter coherence. Your answers should not exceed 15 pages, 8 x 11 paper, double space. The answers must be turned no later than on July 29th, 2021

1. What are the similarities and differences between the philosophical hermeneutics of H.G. Gadamer and the legal hermeneutics of E. Betti. Pay particular attention to the importance each gives to the relationship between the phenomenon of understanding and interpretation, and the role played by language.

2. Discuss the diverse interpretative theories for Constitutional adjudication. Pay particular attention to Scalia’s textualism vis-à-vis originalism, and the politico-philosophical underpinnings to this hermeneutical approach. Use District of Columbia v Heller , 554 US ___ (2008) as case example of this interpretative approach.

3. “The limits of my language are the limits of my world”, stated Wittgenstein in his early work Tractatus Logicus-Philosophicus . Discuss the interplay between meaning and intent with regards to hermeneutics. Pay particular attention to the philosophical conception of language and the limits the law tries to impose on it.

4. How are we to understand Derrida’s claim that deconstruction, if there is such a thing, is justice?

5. What are the core arguments in favor of a moral reading of the law according to Dworkin. Pay particular attention to the underling principles of liberalism and to the relationship between law and politics for purposes of interpretation.

6. Make your own question and answer it.

Ethics In Justice And Security

In criminal justice, process and procedure is important. If proper discretion is not used, lives are affected. And departments within criminal justice, like the police, are affected as well. If improper discretion is used at any point during the process. There are consequences. And one of those consequences is the use of a federal consent decree to hold those in criminal justice accountable.

It requires departments to reform for the good of the department. And the communities they serve. These decrees require all individuals in a given department to examine themselves, particularly their processes, procedures. And, in many cases, ethical standards. Examples provided in Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice illustrate the importance you must place on procedural justice as an employee in criminal justice.

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper that defends your opinion regarding the following questions:

  • What are procedural justice and federal consent decrees? Give examples of their use in current policing. Such as use of force policies. In major cities like Los Angeles and smaller cities like Ferguson, Missouri.
  • Do federal consent decrees impact the principle of procedural justice positively or negatively? Include reasoning. And examples to support your opinion in your explanation. cite 2 references

 breach in a sales contract case

The case analysis should consist of the following three headings:

1. Overview/Summary

2. Opinion/Legal Analysis

3. Relevance to Business Environment

Find a recent lawsuit, legal news story, or article using an Internet

centering on a breach in a sales contract case. News-feed websites such as MSN or CNN, or search engines such as Yahoo or Google may be useful. Major publications such as the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, etc. You may also use your hometown newspaper websites as a resource. To complete the case analysis, you should research the assigned topic to provide a measure of information about the topic’s significance to the current business environment.

The Overview/Summary section should thoroughly address the facts and background

of your chosen case or legal dispute and the legal issue (or law) in question.

The Opinion/Legal Analysis section should demonstrate your critical thinking and

analysis of the subject matter as it relates to the legal principles and concepts covered

in the textbook. You should provide a thorough explanation and discussion of the legal principles as they apply to the issue in question.

The Relevance to Business Environment section should discuss the topic’s

application to the current business climate and offer an insight-building summary,

recommendations, findings, and conclusions. Feel free to draw on your own professional

experience as well.

Additionally, please address the following questions for the breach of contract case discussed above:

·      Discuss which legal remedies that might be available in this case and why they are applicable here.

·      Discuss whether there are any equitable remedies available in this case and why they are applicable here.

The assignment should be presented in APA format and be a minimum of 500 words (2

pages or more), pages to be double-spaced, typed in 12-point font.

voluntary clustered sample

Hello class,

Recently, one of my administration guys put out a survey that he came up with. The sample was based off voluntary clustered sample by him placing the survey into selective people mail boxes asking them to respond. This was an improper sample because he only done this for his district. Therefore, the only response he got were the ones that he knew had strong feelings in reference to his survey. Instead, he should have placed this survey across the city. That way he could get a good randomized sample on the survey instead of getting his select few. Now we all knew this was done on purpose so that he could persuade the right people about his survey. However, his survey was decided to be faltered because he did not allow the entire city to place their opinions in the matter.If he would have used simple random sample across the five districts then he could’ve gotten a proper sample from a non selected group and could have produce better results.

the forms of intellectual intangible property protection

the forms of intellectual intangible property protection

Discuss the following:  (BE SURE TO POST A NEW CASE EXAMPLE NO ONE HAS YET POSTED ABOUT IN THE THREAD)

  • Identify and explain the forms of intellectual intangible property protection, how long they last and what remedies one can seek for an infringement of one’s intellectual property pursuant to the chapter reading.
  • Research and provide one case law example of a business dispute involving intellectual property within the last two years.  Use the Legal Database Resource link below. Summarize the facts, the law in dispute and the outcome decided by the court.  Did you agree with the decision, why or why not?
  • Legal Database link:  https://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=https://www.nexisuni.com
  • Please substantiate all your answers and provide and cite your sources and research following Strayer Writing Standards.

vagueness and ambiguity

Discussion 1

 

In this week’s reading, Beatty compares and contrasts vagueness and ambiguity in written contracts. These problems are similar to some prior contract law material we have covered. For this discussion, respond to the following:

· What does it mean for a contract to be vague or ambiguous? What are the risks of vagueness or ambiguity?

· Why aren’t contracts clearer?

· What is your perspective on contract litigation? Is so much litigation over contracts necessarily a bad thing?

· Are all contracts required to be written to be enforceable? Why or why not? Should verbal contracts be enforceable at all?

 

 

Discussion 2

 

A maxim of law is that there is no right without a remedy. Your readings this week discuss remedies for breach of contract. Choose one of the equitable remedies from your book, and research a case online that discusses that remedy. You may research the case itself, or a news story about the case. Post your source at the end of your discussion. Discuss how the court or reporter defined the remedy sought and the elements for proving that remedy.

Chronic Disease GIS Exchange (CDC)

Write a paper about organization and from the paper we have to make a powerpoint as presentation. So, we selected Chronic Disease GIS Exchange (CDC).

https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/maps/GISX/index.html

Everyone of us take two part to work on . I took this question How the CDC utilizes GIS

1-Geospatial Research, Analysis, and Services Program (GRASP)

2-The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)

3- The geography and geospatial science working group (GeoSWG)

Black Community Culture and Health Related Goals

The purpose of this assignment is to research cultural differences and public health issues that are unique to specific communities. And cultures to address community public health needs.

Throughout Weeks 1-4 of the course. You will participate in a series of Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignments. These assignments will build upon one another. And be used as the basis for the Reflective Journal assignments throughout the course.

Developing cross-cultural competence is paramount when leading, managing. And building partnership to leverage community. And organizational strengths in the public health sector.

Conduct research about your own community or a culture of your choice that is prevalent within your community. Once you have identified your community/cultural group, use the Healthy People topic material, “2020 Topics and Objectives – Objectives A-Z,” to select a goal that will be the focus of your community health intervention. After selecting a goal, review the “Objectives,” “Interventions and Resources,” and “National Snapshots” tabs to obtain additional information about the goal.

Example: Goal: Reduce the disease burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and improve the quality of life for all person who have, or are at risk for, DM.

NOTE: You may not select diabetes mellitus (DM) for your project.

After the goal has been selected, conduct additional research that will help you formulate strategies for managing the goal-related health issue within the selected community/culture. In your research, address the following. You are required to cite to four to five sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content. Share your findings with group members by creating a short PowerPoint presentation that includes speaker notes and addresses the following:

  • Summarize the community/culture that was researched.
  • Identify the heath goal that is the focus of the intervention.
  • Explain how culture and other factors impact the social organization and leadership of the community.
  • Describe three social networks or ethnic organizations that could be used to learn about the social organization of the group, and to identify and engage its leaders.
  • List three challenges that could be encountered when working in this community or culture.

Share your PowerPoint presentation with the members of your CLC group. Negotiate with one another to prioritize the goal and intervention presented by each member of the group. Select one of the goals and interventions presented as the basis for a group project focused on identifying a goal-related health issue and an intervention that can be implemented at the community level.

In 500-750 words, discuss the following:

  • Provide a summary of each group member’s community/culture and the health-related goal and intervention that was proposed.
  • Summarize the negotiation and prioritization process your group used select the goal that is the focus of the intervention.
  • Provide background information on the health issue and your planned intervention.
  • Using the “Objectives” tab, select three objectives associated with the goal and list them.
  • Describe the proposed intervention, including the purpose and intended outcomes for the intervention.
  • Describe the target population for your intervention and justify selection of this population.
  • Identify cultural facilitators, such as community leaders, organizations, social networks, etc., that could assist with addressing the goal and implementing the intervention.
  • List three challenges that might be encountered when working in this community or culture.

Read Chapters 22-24 in Public Health Leadership: Putting Principles Into Practice.

URL:

http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/jones-and-bartlett/2014/public-health-leadership_putting-principles-into-practice_3e.php

Read “Building a Culture of Health,” located on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website.

URL:

https://www.rwjf.org/en/how-we-work/building-a-culture-of-health.html

Read “Section 1. Learning How to Be a Community Leader” of Chapter 14 of Leadership and Management, located on the Community Toolbox website.

URL:

https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/leadership/leadership-functions/become-community-leader/main

Read “Section 10. Understanding Culture, Social Organization, and Leadership to Enhance Engagement” of Chapter 27 of Cultural Competence and Spirituality in Community Building, located on the Community Toolbox website.

URL:

https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/culture/cultural-competence/understand-culture-social-organization/main

Read “Taking Action,” located on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website.

URL:

https://www.cultureofhealth.org/en/taking-action.html

Utilize “2020 Topics and Objectives – Objectives A-Z,” located on the Healthy People 2020 website, to select a goal-related health issue for the topic assignment.

URL:

https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives

Review the Resources page of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation website.

URL:

https://www.rwjf.org/en/cultureofhealth/resources.html

References

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Film Review

A film review is a popular way for critics to assess a film’s overall quality and determine whether or not they think the film is worth recommending.  For this course, you are considering whether or not the film we watch covers the course material well enough that it should be recommended for people who want to learn about global health.  While film reviews tend to be fairly short, they require a lot of preparation before you begin writing.  For tips on how to prepare your review, click here.  

Your review should be between 750-1200 words.  You should summarize the film but make sure that your summary focuses the key points to your argument to recommend (or not to recommend) the film.  The film summary should not give away the entire plot or story line rather it should be used for context and the main body of the film review should highlight key course concepts (e.g., health systems ) from the module and the overarching goal of global health (e.g., definition and characteristics of global health).

film review

Although there is not a set formula to follow when writing a film review. The genre does have certain common elements that most film reviews include which our outlined below.  The strongest film reviews will include some current data to characterize the global health problem being addressed by the film. This information should come from the course lectures and/or textbook.  The current explanation of the global health problem could be included in the introduction. Throughout the analysis, and/or in the conclusion.

  1. Introduction – In the opening of your review, provide some basic information about the film and the global health problem being addressed.. You may include film’s name, year, director, screenwriter, and major actors or characters. Your introduction, which may be longer than one paragraph, should also begin to evaluate the film. And it should allude to the central concept of the review.  A film review should contain a thesis or main claim. Or it could focus on a central point in your analysis and assessment.
  2. Plot Summary – Remember that many readers of film reviews have not yet seen the film. While you want to provide some plot summary, keep this brief and avoid specific details that would spoil the viewing for others. You may want to include this in the introduction or as a separate paragraph to open up into the analysis.
  3. plot summary

  4. Description – While the plot summary will give the reader a general sense of what the film is about, also include a more detailed description of your particular cinematic experience watching the film. This may include your personal impression of what the film looks, feels, and sounds like. In other words, what stands out in your mind when you think about this particular film?  Again, you can include this in the introduction, with the plot summary or in another part of the review along with your analysis or in the conclusion.
  5. Analysis – In order to explain your impression of the film, consider how well the film utilizes formal techniques and thematic content. How do the film’s formal techniques (such as cinematography, editing, lighting, diegetic and  sound, genre, or narrative) affect the way the film looks, feels, and sounds to you? How does the thematic content (such as health systems & global health) affect your experience and interpretation? Also, do the formal techniques work to forward the thematic content?
  6. Conclusion/Evaluation – The closing of your film review should remind the reader of your general thoughts and impressions of the film. You may also implicitly or explicitly state whether or not you recommend the film. Make sure to remind the reader of why the film is or is not worth seeing.

https://vimeo.com/mediccglobal