The use of restorative justice

The use of restorative justice

paper#1 brian

The use of restorative justice in this day in age seems too good to be true. The main issue is that people are naturally selfish and will not budge from their ways. In order to completely have restorative justice there needs to be a drastic change in what people think is right, wrong, and knowing that the human life is not worthless. This type of justice is a systematic response to wrongdoing that emphasizes healing the wounds of victims, offenders, and communities caused or revealed by crime (Schmalleger, F. 2020). In few instances all parties involved in the criminal justice process can meet eye to eye and come to terms with what was done. The healing that can take place when there is admitting of wrongdoing and forgiveness is given can help spread restorative justice throughout the justice system.

In the case of Amber Guyger, a former police officer, she stood trial for entering the wrong apartment and fatally shooting Botham Jean thinking he was an intruder. She was untimely found guilty and the final day of the murder trial included a stunning moment in which Jean’s younger brother, Brandt, told Guyger during his victim impact statement that he forgave her, and gave her a long hug before she was taken to prison. Just after that, District Judge Tammy Kemp apparently gave Guyger a Bible and also hugged her (McLaughlin, E. 2019). In this case the younger brother realized that holding hate in his heart after she was found guilty of the murder weighed on him and forgave Amber Guyger


Schmalleger, F. (2020). Corrections in the 21st Century. [Savant Learning Systems]. Retrieved from

Eliott C. McLaughlin and Steve Almasy. (2019, October 3). Amber Guyger gets 10-year murder sentence for fatally shooting Botham Jean. Cnn.

paper#2 Jeffery

When looking at the concept of restorative justice you have two parts that must come together. First the criminal but be truly ready to take responsibility and the second part is the victim or the family must be ready to forgive. With this concept, some criminals will never receive restorative justice due to the victim or family never being willing to forgive. This also puts a larger burden on a victim or family when restorative justice comes into question.” A restorative justice perspective allows judges and juries to consider victim-impact statements in their sentencing decisions.” (Schmalleger and Smykla, n.d., 44) When looking into the trial of Amber Guyger you can find examples of restorative justice. The brother of the victim was asked if he would like to speak at the victim impact statement and he thing to do so. Instead of using this time to tell the judge to throw the book at the shooter he forgave her and spoke to her about how he forgave her. This should fall into victim-offender reconciliation because the victim in this case his brother forgave his offender. “Brandt Jean shocked many when he told Amber Guyger he forgave her and said he didn’t want her to go to prison after she received a 10-year sentence” (Simon, 2019)this shows that the family of the victim truly forgave Guyger in the shooting that had happened this happened after the trial at the sentencing when the family speaks out to the judge. “Restorative justice seeks to restore the health of the community, repair the harm done by the crime” (Schmalleger and Smykla, n.d., p. 45) the forgiveness from the brother would be considered the restoring of the health of the community and the harm done.


Schmalleger, F., Smykla, J. (n.D.). Corrections in the 21st century (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education.

Simon, D. (2019, December 6). His hug of forgiveness shocked the country. yet he still won’t watch the video from that moment – cnn. Cnn. Retrieved March 15, 2021, from

paper#3 chris


Description of CODIS (Option 6)

Ge et al. (2012) report that DNA databases are now a fundamental tool in a criminal investigation. The purpose of these databases is to maintain a store of DNA profiles collected from offenders, crime scenes, or missing persons. Because there is such a high re rep rate among offenders, the collection of a convicted criminal’s DNA helps solve future crimes. Saferstein (2015) reports that one of the early problems with using these databases was that the DNA specimens were collected in many different jurisdictions from many different sources. To allow easier access to the databases, Saferstein (2015) states that the FBI created the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) to allow federal, state, and local laboratories to exchange information and compare DNA samples against other samples in the database.

Saferstein (2016) says that the CODIS system has three separate indexes. They are:

  • Forensic – This index contains, at the time of Saferstein’s writing, over 900,000 DNA profiles collected from unsolved crime scenes.
  • Offender – Contains over 13 million profiles of individuals convicted of crimes.
  • Arrestee – Many states and the FBI collect DNA from those awaiting trial and from detained immigrants. This database contains over three million profiles.

Saferstein (2016) reports that as of June 2011, searches on CODIS have resulted in 147,200 hits that assisted in more than 141,300 investigations.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation reports that personal information is protected in CODIS in several ways. Searches of CODIS do not show any names, and no single identifiers are used in the CODIS software, although for missing persons, there can be some metadata included such as date of birth, etc. The information stored in the database is the DNA profile, the name of the agency submitting the profile, the specimen identification number, and the DNA lab staff associated with the profile analysis.

Ge et al. (2012) report that the FBI is working closely with laboratories in the U.S. and foreign countries to expand the database. It is believed that working with foreign governments and making a more international database could be a help in this countries fight against terrorism.


Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions on CODIS and NDIS. Criminal Justice Information Services.

Ge, J., Eisenberg, A., Budowle, B. (2012). Developing criteria and data to determine best options for expanding the core CODIS loci. Investigative Genetics, 3(1), 1-14.

Saferstein, R. (2015). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science (11th ed.). Pearson

Paper#4 Brandon 1.


Evidence Collection Units

Evidence collection units are experts in their field. These units are trained to collect and preserve evidence taken from crime scenes. Many advantages can come from having evidence collection units process a crime scene. One of the advantages deals with the specialized training of these units. Many forensic techniques still leave ample room for improvement (Service, 2000). Evidence collection units undergo training that is specific to evidence collection, which allows them to be more current with new techniques and procedures to process a crime scene. Some police officers and detectives are also trained on evidence collection, but they have a wide range of other responsibilities that may cause divided attention.

Having a unit designated primarily for evidence collection allows that unit to have a primary goal and focus, which allows for more attentiveness and an expert approach to evidence collection. The second advantage deals with having a unit dedicated to evidence collection it allows a professional and unbiased approach to inspecting the crime scene. The unbiased approach is important as it allows the members of the team to conduct their business without any emotional attachment to the crime scene. Police officers and detectives could potentially have an emotional attachment to a crime scene, which could potentially invoke the possibility of mistakes being made due to the emotional stress of certain crime scenes. The third reason would be the fact that the evidence collection units maintain custody of evidence collected at a crime scene. Evidence Collection Unites follow strict evidence storage procedures to safeguard that evidence is preserved in the same state in that it was recovered from the crime scene and not contaminated (Ahluwalia and Srinivasan, 2004). The safeguards allow the proper handling of all evidence collected. Some police officers and detectives may not have the specific training to properly handle and preserve certain crime scene evidence.


Ahluwalia, R.S., and Srinivasan, A. (2004, April). Forensic information management system. Forensic Science Communications6(2).

Service, R. F. (2000). Where Dead Men Really Do Tell Tales. Science289(5481), 855.

Paper#5 Brandon 2nd

Biometrics to Counter-Terrorism

Since September 11, 2001, the United States government has been seeking many unique ways to protect American citizens The Patriot Act, in all of its different incarnations, has been essential to combat terrorism. The United States government has also made vast advancements in technology to combat terrorism, and one of these advancements has been in the biometric recognition field. The government uses the fingerprints and facials of known terrorists to help discover and capture the terrorists. Large central databases such as SIS, VIS, and Eurodac are used to store personal and biometric data to manage borders but have also been used to counter terroristic threats (Sadik and Kaya, 2020). These databases allow a government to collect and store the fingerprints and facial images of suspected or known terrorists.

Terrorists will typically use disguises and false identities to conceal themselves and blend into the local population, biometric programs allow the military and government agencies to in a way see through those disguises and capture those terrorists. The military has used drones that are equipped with facial recognition devices to better detect potential threats. The US Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) Program is a biometric program designed to control and monitor the movement of foreign nationals throughout the United States to enhance the security of US citizens and visitors (Mitsilegas, 2012). The US-Visit is used to better protect our borders, both from potential illegal immigrants and from possible terroristic threats. The collection of biometric data and the advancements in biometric data collection is extremely important to further protect American citizens.


Mitsilegas, V. (2012). Immigration control in an era of globalization: deflecting foreigners, weakening citizens, strengthening the state. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies19(1), 3.

Sadik, G., Kaya, C. (2020). The Role of Surveillance Technologies in the Securitization of EU Migration Policies and Border Management/AB Goc Politikalarinin ve Sinir Yonetiminin Guvenliklestirilmesinde Gozetim Teknolojilerinin Rolu. Uluslararasi Iliskiler / International Relations17(68), 145.

international law

occasional mistake

INR3403: Research Paper Assignment


This research paper assignment is designed for you to choose a topic of international law and, using cases, treaties, and other documents, analyze how those cases/treaties/etc. have changed or impacted our understanding of your chosen topic. Your paper must be between 7- 10 pages and include one to three relevant cases/treaties/etc. that illustrate the importance of your chosen topic. The research paper assignment is worth 25% of your overall grade and consists of three parts: research topic (5%), first page and annotated bibliography (5%), and the completed paper (15%). Formatting information will be provided in a subsequent section.

If you have any questions about the assignment, please email me, set up an office hours appointment, or post to the general discussion board.

thesis statement

Research Topic: 5%

Your chosen research topic must be submitted to Canvas by January 30th at 10:00pm EST. Your research topic submission must include a paragraph describing what topic of interna- tional law you would like to explore in more detail, a thesis statement, and list one to three potential sources for your completed paper. (You may reuse these sources for your annotated bibliography.) After submission, I will approve your topic or ask you to choose another topic based on my feedback. If your topic is not approved, you will have an additional week to resubmit another topic idea.

It might be helpful to look at the textbook and/or syllabus for inspiration. You can choose a topic that we will be discussing in class, but you cannot exclusively use sources from the textbook or those cases that we will be discussing in class. Make sure your topic and thesis are specific enough that you will be able to complete the assignment within the page count. If you have questions, please contact me in a timely manner before the assignment is due, so that I have enough time to respond and provide guidance.

First Page and Annotated Bibliography: 5%

The first page of your paper and an annotated bibliography are due February 20th by 10:00pm EST. must meet the formatting standards of the completed paper and contain at least one in-text citation. should have be an intro- duction to your paper and contain your thesis statement. Introductions are your opportunity to grab the attention of your reader and explain to them why your topic is important.

The bibliography and citation style that you must use for this paper is Chicago Style. For more information on Chicago Style citations please click here. (If you are using Microsoft Word, their internal reference manager includes Chicago Style.) The annotated bibliography must contain at least five sources that meet the Chicago-Style formatting criteria. For each source, you must write a one sentence summary of the source and explain how you intend


international law

to use the source in your final paper. You are allowed to use the sources that you provided in your research topic submission.

Acceptable sources include books, academic journal articles, treaties, case documents, infor- mation from official organizations (UN, EU, NATO, etc.), and news articles (print or online) from reputable news sources. Sources that provide summaries or overviews of topics, such as Wikipedia, are not acceptable sources for this paper. Wikipedia can be a useful way to find sources, but you need to read and synthesize the materials cited yourself rather than rely on the Wikipedia editor. If you have any questions about whether something is an acceptable source of information, please do not hesitate to email me.

Final Paper: 15%

Your final paper is due March 27th by 10:00pm EST. The paper must be between 7 and 10 pages long. Cover pages and reference pages do not count towards your overall page count. A cover page is not required but it is recommended.

occasional mistake

Things to keep in mind when you are writing:

� Use quotes sparingly. Quotes should be used to add context or support your argument. Do not rely on them to make your argument for you.

� Keep your sentences short and to the point. Sentences should not be the length of paragraphs.

� Use paragraphs to make one argument. When you need to make a new argument, make a new paragraph. A single paragraph should not be the length of a page.

� Vary your sentence structure. Do not start your sentences and paragraphs the same way every time. This will make your paper more enjoyable to read and will prevent it from being repetitive.

� Use active voice in your writing. Try to avoid using the passive voice.

� Make sure you pick a tense and stick with it. Do not mix present and past tense in your papers.

� A good rule of thumb is that you should have at least as many citations as the number of pages in your paper. Do not base your entire paper on one source.

� Do not plagiarize or you will fail the assignment.

� Read your paper out loud. This is a great way to catch grammatical mistakes or missing words. It is okay to make the occasional mistake, but if mistakes become distracting to my ability to read and understand your paper, you will be marked down.


international law

Formatting Guidelines

Your paper must meet the formatting guidelines or you will lose points on the assignment. If you have any questions about the formatting, please email me or contact me for an appointment.

� Papers must be double spaced and use 12 point Times New Roman or Arial font. You are allowed to use section headings to organize your paper. Section headings should be the same size and font as the rest of the paper, but bolded.

� Page numbers must be displayed at the bottom of each page, except for on the cover page. Your name and the course number must appear either on the cover page, the first page of your paper, or as a footer on each content page.

� Margins must be one inch all the way around. All outside materials and quotes must be cited using the Chicago Manual of Style. You are allowed to cite the textbook and my lectures, including the powerpoints. Do not plagiarize others’ work.

� Citations must be in-text. Do not use footnotes or end notes to cite your sources.

current tensions between states’ rights and the federal government

current tensions between states’ rights and the federal government

  • Few people could live together and not have laws. Why? Consider the concept of pluralism. Does pluralism have any negative aspects? Why have some fought so hard against the concept in the United States? Consider present examples and discussion surrounding the idea of pluralism and how this may or may not be connected to the current discussion on immigration.
  • Could a country such as the United States function without a federal constitution? Would it be possible for each state to merely abide by its own constitution? Why shouldn’t the US Constitution include an overall criminal code specifying crimes and punishments that could apply [universally] throughout the US? Can you think of current tensions between states’ rights and the federal government (e.g., gun laws, physician assisted suicide, legalization of marijuana, etc.) Discuss.
  • Should any one court be given the final say? Why or why not? Is there a negative side to appointment for life on the Court? Does this and the inability to lessen a justice’s salary really prevent influencing a Supreme Court justice? Do you think that the Supreme Court is a de facto lawmaker? What about split decisions? Considering many Supreme Court decisions are decided 5 to 4, is it reasonable to have the law of the land determined by 5 people?
  • As discussed previously, can you think of current tensions between states’ rights and the federal government? Discuss. Do you believe that this influences your daily life? Imagine a system in which the federal government determined all laws across the land. One in which there was no local or state-level jurisdiction fluctuation. What would it look like?
  • current tensions between states’ rights and the federal government

  • Explain at what point a person is considered “under arrest.” Explain the difference between a stop and an arrest. Why might states authorize probable cause arrests for certain unwitnessed misdemeanors? How much force can be used by an officer when executing an arrest? How is it determined? Can you think of any times when you heard about “excessive use of force” and if so, how do you think the actions of a few influenced the perceptions of many regarding the police?
  • Considering the USA Patriot Act, do you think Americans could ever sacrifice too many rights in exchange for national security? What does the Patriot Act allow the government to do that might give you pause concerning your privacy? Do you believe that most people know what is in the Patriot Act concerning their individual liberties? If you decided to protest the government anyway, do you think some of these concerns over the Patriot Act’s reach could impact you?

2. Grading will be tied to comprehension, depth, source reliance, APA, grammar, spelling, completeness and scope.

3. In crafting your answer, you will provide concepts and ideas culled from the text. You should define your terms.

4. Cite using APA format. There is no required length of this paper, however, it must be comprehensive and fulfill the above requirements. You will be uploading your paper in Canvas, but your paper will process through Turnitin, a plagiarism detection service.

Domestic Violence Awareness Month

Domestic Violence Awareness Month

As mentioned earlier this month. October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month, so as a class we are tackling a question that many of you have asked throughout this course: what can we do as individuals to help or intervene?

Answer the following questions in your own words:

According to Chapter 8 on Intimate Partner Violence(IPV), where does IPV occur more often and why?

Do an Internet search for local resources and find what local resources are out there for women or people seeking help for intimate partner violence (if you do not reside in El Paso, do it for your where home is for you) ? Please Identify at least two resources and describe what they do or the types of help they provide (Please make sure to paste website address)

What can you do to prevent violence against women and girls? For ideas, go to the United Nations Equity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women Web site. Visit

History of The Minstrel Show

1. In 8 sentences, please explain what you see in the two photographs below referring to this week’s reading. The excerpt cited below could be a good starting point for such reflection.“It becomes impossible to talk about a common culture in the fuller sense without talking about who is defining it, within which set of interdependencies and power balances, for what purposes, and with reference to which outside culture(s) have to be discarded, rejected or demonized in order to generate the sense of cultural identity.” (Featherstone  1990: 11) 

2. This week we look at the whole Gates arrest issue and its aftermath. Did the Commission report succeed? Did the report have any long term impact? Write 400 words

3. For EACH video listed below, write two paragraphs summarizing what you took away from them.  NUMBER YOUR ANSWERS. 

1)  A Brief History of The Minstrel Show

  1. “Jump Jim Crow” by Thomas “Daddy” Rice

  1. Race Melodrama and Minstrel Shows:

4)  Banjo History and Culture

  1. Jim Hartel minstrel banjo and Rhiannon Giddens segment. MUSIC episode PBS premiere: November 20, 2015.

6)  “Hard Times” and “Camptown Hornpipe” performed by Rhiannon Giddens, Banjo

how the ‘human factor’ can impact the efficacy of forensics

how the ‘human factor’ can impact the efficacy of forensics

Your answers to EACH of the three questions must be between 150-250 words (for a total of 450-750 words). This means question 1 should be at least 150 words, question 2 should be at least 150 words, etc. Writing 200 words for question 1 and only 100 words for question 2 is not acceptable. Failure to meet the minimum word count for any of the three questions will result in a lower score.

Yes, you need to cite your sources (including the assigned material) using APA version 7 citation format. Failure to cite all sources will result in a lower score and plagiarism will result in an academic complaint. You will not be allowed to re-submit a post in which you have plagiarized.

You must write complete sentences. No bullet points allowed.

Responses must be written in your own words. No quotes allowed.





Answer the following questions:

1a. We’ve discussed how the ‘human factor’ can impact the efficacy of forensics. These human factors are especially influential in subjective forensics (i.e. footwear, tool-mark, fingerprint, etc.). Now let’s talk about more objective forensic evidence. Watch ‘ Exploring bias in forensic DNA profiling (Links to an external site.) Shape, arrow Description automatically generated‘. How can bias influence DNA profiling?

1b. What can we do to mitigate bias and can we ever really completely eliminate bias?

how the ‘human factor’ can impact the efficacy of forensics

2a. Before you started your degree in criminal justice (or took your first criminal justice class), did you have any misconceptions the CJ system?

2b. If so, where did these misconceptions come from?

2c. Read ‘ The ‘CSI Effect’: Does It Really Exist?


Preview the document‘. After reading the responses from the survey, identify at least one pro and at least one con of the CSI effect.

2d. After reading the article, do you think the CSI effect is a major concern for our legal system?

2e. Why or why not?


3a. Some suggest populating forensic databases, particularly DNA databases, with the entire population (either of the nation or world-wide) would increase the effectiveness of the database. Read ‘ DNA Sample Collection from Arrestees (Links to an external site.) ‘ and explain some of the logistical challenges. Read ‘ Forensic databases: benefits and ethical and social costs


Preview the document‘ (note: I am aware this is a UK article but some issues are universal) and explain some of the social and ethical challenges.

3b. Based on the challenges, do you think it is worth adding the entire population to a forensic database?

3c. Why or why not?

Immanuel Kant’s Ethical Theory

Immanuel Kant’s Ethical Theory

Using 500-700 words discuss Immanuel Kant’s Ethical Theory i.e., deontology and how it may apply to modern policing ethical practices. In doing so, describe the theory of deontology and provide some historical background pertaining to Kant (born 1724 – died 1804). No direct quotes should be used in the response.

Using 500-700 words discuss some of the peer-reviewed research findings pertaining to why individuals behave unethically. In doing so, discuss using critical thinking what the academic literature has to say and apply that information toward police officer unethical conduct. No direct quotes should be utilized in the response.

Examining The Law In Saudi Arabia

Examining The Law In Saudi Arabia

Create a presentation examining the law in Saudi Arabia as it pertains to licensure of physicians and medical malpractice as shown in the Ministry of Health. (2005, December 6), Law of practicing health professions.  Be sure to include:

An analysis of the purpose of the law;

The ethical principles guiding this law;

The definition of “medical malpractice” written in your own words

How the requirements detailed in sections 1 & 2 aid in preventing malpractice

Recommendations that would improve the law to further meet the goals of its purpose.

Your well-written presentation should meet the following requirements:

Be 10 slides in length, with eight content slides in addition to the title slide and at least one reference slide (you may add as many reference slides as you need if you include more than 4 articles). Presentation notes (100-150 words) are required for each slide.  Notes must draw from and cite relevant reference materials.  Add notes to the speaker’s notes section of the PowerPoint presentation.  Submit the document in PowerPoint format so that the speaker’s notes can be viewed by the instructor.

Provide support for your statements with in-text citations from a minimum of four scholarly articles in the speaker notes as well as the references slide.

COVID 19 Pandemic

Paper #1 (250 min two scholarly sources)

With looks to the COVID 19 Pandemic there are several theories floating around as to how it began, how we navigate as a society etc. Research COVID 19 and tell us your theory overall regarding the state of our nation. Please remember to supply at least two scholarly sources and your initial discussion must be at least 250 word minimum.

Paper #2 (250 min two scholarly sources)

This week we will discuss classical and neoclassical theories. Provide an example of an item (can be as simple as paper towels, toilet paper, bleach etc. that are coveted in our most recent situation) and discuss it from both perspectives.

Paper #3 (250 min two scholarly sources)

Research the COVID 19 Pandemic and relates it to one of theories covered in our text this week.

Paper #4 (250 min two scholarly sources)

We will discuss subculture theories this week. Research a group of your choice (hippies for example) and discuss how they have evolved or devolved as a group, in clothes, appearance, causes etc.

Paper #5 (250 min two scholarly sources)

Discuss feminism, the primary interest of feminologists and four different types of feminist thought.

The Legal Environment of Business

BUS -Spring 2021

The Legal Environment of Business

Project Instructions Sheet




Law and government regulations affect almost all business activities from hiring and firing decisions to workplace safety, the manufacturing and marketing of products, business financing, and more. To make good business decisions, a basic knowledge of the laws and regulations governing these activities is beneficial if it is not essential.


Requirement – Content


In light of the statement above and course reading, critically analyze the relevant legal environment of work organisations in respect of one of the following business laws listed below. Your discussion should be supported by the relevant examples from the world of practice.

· Tort law

· Product liability

· Intellectual property rights.

· Internet laws, social media, and privacy.

· Cybercrime.

· International and space law.

· Employment, immigration, and labour law.

· Employment discrimination.


Requirement – Format

Your research project should be compiled in a written report, documenting the nature of the project, its objectives, the teamwork dynamics and the actual findings linked to the theoretical material of the course.

The work must be word-processed and must not exceed 4000 words (with an allowance of 10% below or over this word count). Your work should include the cover sheet for this assignment (it is available below). The font type used for this report must be ‘Times New Roman’ with a font size of 12. Line spacing of paragraphs should be 1.5.


The written report should be submitted online via Black Board.

The PPT presentation should be submitted through email.



Cheating and Plagiarism: Those who copy or use the work of others without attribution will receive no credit for the assignment involved. More than one incident of cheating and/or plagiarism will trigger University disciplinary action.

Plagiarism Policy:

· The work you submit for credit must be your original work.

· Assignments that are not the original work of the student are considered plagiarized.

· Plagiarism occurs when another person’s work, words, or ideas are presented as one’s own without the use of a school-recognized method of citation, such as APA style (e.g., copied from another source such as an author or another student without properly acknowledging the actual writer/author).

· Plagiarism also occurs when knowingly giving or allowing one’s own work to be copied or otherwise duplicated by another for academic credit, or when resubmitting one’s own work for academic credit.

· All those who violate this policy will receive a zero for the assignment and the case will be turned over to the Dean of Student Affairs for further action.