Professional Nursing and State-Level Regulations6050

To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and reflect on the mission of state/regional boards of nursing as the protection of the public through the regulation of nursing practice.
  • Consider how key regulations may impact nursing practice.
  • Review key regulations for nursing practice of your state’s/region’s board of nursing and those of at least one other state/region and select at least two APRN regulations to focus on for this Discussion.


Post a comparison of at least two APRN board of nursing regulations in your state/region with those of at least one other state/region. Describe how they may differ. Be specific and provide examples. Then, explain how the regulations you selected may apply to Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) who have legal authority to practice within the full scope of their education and experience. Provide at least one example of how APRNs may adhere to the two regulations you selected.

How Long Does It Take to Detox From Alcohol?

What Does It Mean When You Have Liver Pain After Drinking Alcohol? Learn the signs of liver disease and what to do if you have a painful liver after drinking alcohol. The liver does the heavy lifting when it comes to processing alcohol. After the alcohol passes through your stomach, small intestine and bloodstream, your liver starts its cleanup. The rest comes out through your kidneys, lungs and skin. However, many factors, such as gender, medications, and health, can affect intoxication and cause BAC to rise quicker and fall slower. If a person with a BAC level of 0.08 stops drinking, it will take roughly 6 hours for them to sober up. Mixing different types of alcoholic drinks can rapidly bring up BAC levels and make a person feel and appear intoxicated much more quickly than if they stick to one kind only.

Focus on getting antioxidants from food and not supplements, which may, in fact, increase your risk of certain diseases when taken in large amounts . However, these processes release wastes in the form of urea and carbon dioxide, which can cause harm if they build up in your blood . Liver enzymes metabolize alcohol to acetaldehyde, a known how to flush your system from alcohol cancer-causing chemical . Your liver metabolizes more than 90% of the alcohol you consume . Week Two – At this point, some symptoms start to taper off while others may persist for a few weeks, such as fatigue, headaches, and insomnia. Your liver breaks down the alcohol and turns it into the highly toxic and reactive chemical acetaldehyde.

Is there a safe approach to drinking?

Our main purpose is to provide services and education to the client and family that will support long lasting recovery of mind, body, and spirit. And while most of us aren’t proud of our eating and drinking choices by the time Monday rolls around, there’s really no point in dwelling on them. Instead, try curing your weekendbinges with these detox strategies and have a happy recovery. Do not be a regular drinker – Consuming excessive alcohol daily might make the liver challenging to break down the drug leading to abuse. Moderate drinking – The liver can process only a certain amount of alcohol in an hour. Heavy drinking might damage the liver and its functionalities. Food – Consuming food before or after drinking might lead to slow absorption of alcohol.

  • This is the very first part of the process, and from there, you’ll be able to delve into the matters that are keeping you stuck.
  • What Does It Mean When You Have Liver Pain After Drinking Alcohol?
  • The claims that oxygen relieves hangover symptoms are sketchy at best (remember oxygen bars?), though some people swear the connection is real.

However, according to American Addiction Centers, the speed that alcohol is broken down is influenced by gender, weight, age, and the amount of food you’ve eaten. When you drink alcohol, it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the lining of the stomach and small intestines. This process occurs as quickly as 30 seconds to 20 minutes, but having food in your stomach will slow down the absorption process. Alcohol is then carried in the blood throughout the body to the brain. Detoxification is cleaning out unwanted toxins that are detrimental and harmful to your health. This means feeding yourself a proper diet, participating in the exercise, adding other healthy habits to your lifestyle, and bringing your alcohol/drug use to a halt. Because both alcohol and mixers are high in sugar, a hangover is in large part a massive sugar crash. In fact, your blood sugar can go down to practically zero. So it’s important to get some food back in your system. Eggs have the added bonus of containing cysteine, an amino acid that counteracts a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism.

Diseases & Conditions

Hi, I have been using for over a year now and tried to get off opiates for the past 6 months ever since my husband and I got into some trouble. He is currently incarcerated and has been clean this whole time and also has been trying the best of his ability to help me get of off them. He has been a user ever since his accident when he was 15 and he is now 24. I just want to take the right step and lead us into a better life. We want to live a sober and straight life, these drugs have left us nothing but a dark path, especially for him. I want to start our life so when he gets out I can help him stay clean and be healthy. I really just want to turn our lives around especially we are both young and deserve better.
how to flush your system from alcohol
You’ll experience various symptoms and side effects but will eventually feel better – like a brand new person – once the process is completed. You’ve finally decided that you’re too old to drink or have realized that your body can no longer handle alcohol. Maybe you’re facing DUI charges and need to abide by the court ruling. Whatever your reason is, once you decide to give up alcohol and start anew, you need to undergo an alcohol flushing. Detoxing won’t necessarily remove all the toxins from your body right away, but it can help the alcohol flush out more easily. Some popular ways to fight a hangover like drinking coffee and taking a shower, for example, may make you feel better in the moment but do not have any effect on your BAC. While moving might be the last thing you want to do when your body is full of alcohol, it can really help flush the toxins out. Not only will sweating and breathing deeper allow you to release toxins naturally, but getting more oxygen can help your liver filter out toxins more easily. We recommend taking a short walk outside or even doing low-impact workouts, like a yoga practice with lots of twists, to release endorphins. You can assess your lifestyle to find out whether alcohol is a social thing or a problem in your life.
On average, hair tests can help detect alcohol traces for up to 90 days after the last drink. However, these are not standard tests to detect alcohol in someone’s system. Traditional or older methods of testing can detect alcohol traces in urine for up to 24 hours. However, more recent methods that test for ethanol metabolites can detect alcohol even 72 hours after the last drink. Close to 20 percent of the alcohol from a single drink moves straight into the blood vessels.

Latest Health and Living News

Women typically have higher body fat percentage and lower percentage of body water compared to men, so women will process alcohol slower. The older a person is, the longer alcohol stays in their liver meaning unprocessed alcohol remains in the bloodstream longer. “When a person with an alcohol dependence stops drinking without a medical detox, it can be extremely dangerous and even fatal,” Sternlicht says. Medical and treatment professionals urge alcoholics not to attempt detox without constant attention, preferably from a doctor.
Eco Sober House
If you need to get drugs out of your system, drink more water, eat healthy foods, and exercise to fully flush them from your body. The best way to flush any type of drug from your system is to keep your body well hydrated, so drink plenty of water throughout the day. In addition to water, drink tea or cranberry juice, which will help you urinate more frequently. Instead, eat vegetables and fruits that are high in fiber to help restore vitamins and minerals and speed up your body’s metabolism to remove the drugs. If you’re Sober House trying to get drugs like cocaine or marijuana out of your body, add biking, hiking, running, or jumping rope to your day to burn fat, where the drugs build up. If you or a loved one struggles with alcohol consumption, please contact an Ark Behavioral Health specialist. Our substance abuse and addiction treatment programs offer medical detox, mental health counseling, and many other types of personalized, evidence-based care. Taking detox drinks or drinking more water might not flush out the metabolites completely.

Vertava Health offers 100% confidential substance abuse assessment and treatment placement tailored to your individual needs. I was “the closet kind”, because I am a mother, wife, grandmother, in the car pool for my son’s school, and the list goes on. My family and others wanted to be around me because I was happier and functioned better on the chemicals. Everyone knew something was wrong, but was scared to hurt my feelings or each had something to gain or lose from me knowing there was an “elephant in the room”. It wasn’t until I had destroyed enough relationships and my own life – that someone decided to toss me to the curb, so to speak. In doing so; I was able to get the help I needed to save my and others lives.

When this is the case, alcohol treatment can provide the level of support you need to accomplish your goal. Keep reading to find out what factors determine how long the effects of alcohol stay with you along with some tips on how to clean out your system. Alcohol is legal and heavily advertised, but happens to be the substance many people struggle with the most. If you have a drinking problem, you’ll want to move toward recovery if you hope to get your life back. The detoxing process can be dangerous, so seek the professional help of an alcohol addiction rehab. Plenty of fluids are needed to keep your organs, especially your liver, detoxifying. You need to replenish the water you’ve lost from vomiting and diarrhea.

The Alcohol Detox Process

The claims that oxygen relieves hangover symptoms are sketchy at best (remember oxygen bars?), though some people swear the connection is real. Hoof it in the fresh air and get your breathing going a little. More oxygen flowing through your veins can only help your liver with the monumental task of filtering the toxins from alcohol out of your blood. Plus, it’ll get you out of your stuffy apartment and it’ll feel good to be up and about. Alcohol metabolizes rather quickly; thus, a saliva test or breathalyzer test is used to confirm intoxication or recent drinking. These tests are used by emergency departments, police officers, and sometimes in rehab centers to ensure outpatient treatment participants are practicing abstinence. Detox water is claimed to have all sorts of health benefits, including weight loss. Detox diets are said to eliminate toxins, which supports improving health and promoting weight loss. Research links high consumption of sugary and highly processed foods to obesity and other chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes .

What can make you test positive for alcohol in a urine test?

EtG and EtS testing may have unexpectedly positive results stemming from “incidental exposures” such as electronic cigarette use, heavy use of hand sanitizer, or consuming certain foods/beverages.

However, this is more likely due to how mixing drinks may cause a person to consume a larger amount of alcohol in a short period of time. For every alcoholic drink an individual has, they should also have a full glass of water, which will help limit the amount of alcohol they consume. Even moderate levels of alcohol have a dehydrating effect, and drinking water can slow this effect down. Medical News Today has strict sourcing guidelines and draws only from peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical journals and associations. We link primary sources — including studies, scientific references, and statistics — within each article and also list them in the resources section at the bottom of our articles.
how to flush your system from alcohol
The more you drink, the longer it takes for alcohol to leave your body. One standard drink, which is equal to 12 ounces of regular beer, will generally raise a 150-pound adult’s blood alcohol content to between 0.02 and 0.03. However, the affect that one drink will have on the percentage of alcohol in your blood can vary greatly according to a complex group of personal factors. These are products sold to help you pass a urine drug test with drugs still in your system. These products mostly use the principle of dilution and are hit and miss at best. It is possible to dilute the urine by drinking large amounts of fluids, but if you do, this will change the chemical composition of the urine. One of these changes is called specific gravity, and drug labs check for this.
how to flush your system from alcohol
We publish material that is researched, cited, edited and reviewed by licensed medical professionals. The information we provide is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It should not be used in place of the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider. Heavy drinking can eliminate vitamins and minerals from the body, which can lead to a hangover. Hangovers make you feel fatigued or sick because of the reduction in vitamin B.
I have been using daily , interveinously since I was 13 , I’m 41 now . I thank u for the good advice on how to remove these toxins and such. Thank you Dionisio and we are glad you enjoyed our article. This has been the best atricle I have read in the past year of my recovery and cleanse. Epsom salt baths are another great way to accomplish the same thing. Hot water opens your pores and the salt carries the toxins away. Yogurt contains probiotics, which keep your digestive tracts happy and healthy. Choosing natural cleaning products like vinegar and baking soda over commercial cleaning agents can reduce your exposure to potentially toxic chemicals . Antibiotic use, poor dental hygiene, and diet quality can all alter the bacterial balance in your gut .
Map out your life and where you see it headed if you keep drinking at your current rate. If you see yourself deathly ill or worse, it’s a key indicator that you need to get detox. Call up an addiction hotline if you believe you have a problem and need help. Matt Gonzales is a writer and researcher for



1.Can universal healthcare be guaranteed if the market is allowed to operate without government intervention? Why or why not?

2.Is the demand for overall healthcare more elastic or inelastic? What implication does this have?

3.What four assumptions must be met for a market to be perfectly competitive? If these assumptions are not met, does this mean perfect competition cannot be achieved?

4.Can a market work if it is not perfectly competitive? Will it reach equilibrium price? If a price is not at equilibrium will the result be more or less surpluses and shortages of goods and services than if at equilibrium?

5.What is meant by externalities and public goods? Does a market economy address externalities and public goods? What role, if any, can government have in addressing externalities and public goods?

TW ch 8, 9

Teitelbaum  & Wilensky

Chapter 8 Health Insurance

1.What historical event occurred that resulted in a sharp increase in employer-sponsored health insurance? Why did this increase occur?

2.What are the advantages and disadvantages of employer sponsored health insurance to the insured?

3.Does having insurance make the insured more or less concerned about the cost of care?

4.What is fee for service? What are its advantages and disadvantages to the patient? To the practitioner?

5.How are these terms related to health insurance?

1.Asymmetric information

2.Adverse selection

6.What law passed in 2010 prevents insurance plans from charging higher premiums due to pre-existing conditions?

T and W Chapter 9 Health Economics

  1. How is Economics defined?

2.Why is the understanding of economics important to healthcare policy and law?

3.Explain these concepts:

    1. Rational decision making
    2. Utility
    3. Diminishing marginal utility

4.What is economic demand?

5.How do these factors each influence demand?

    1. Income
    2. Quality
    3. Price of a substitute
    4. Price of a complement
    5.   See Box 9.2. Do you support theory x or y as it relates to healthcare?
    6. How might your position affect how you see the government role in healthcare?
    7. What is elasticity and how might it be important in health economics?
    8. What is the difference between average and marginal cost? Use an example if needed to explain.
    9. What is supplier-induced demand? How might physicians induce demand in a fee for services reimbursement system?
    10. Is the healthcare market perfectly competitive? If we allow the “free market” to operate without any interference from government will everyone be able to purchase healthcare?
    11. Describe monopolistic competition.
    12. What is market failure?
    13. Is lack of income equity a market failure?
    14. What is a public good or an externality? How do these affect the market and economy?
    15. What role does government have in the healthcare market?
    16. Give examples of:
    1. Government financing public goods
    2. Tax increases, tax deductions, and tax subsidies
    3. Regulatory mandates
    4. Prohibitions
    5. Redistribution of income



HIV Subgroups

HIV Subgroups

Investigate the HIV/AIDS situation among key populations in Fiji . Is the epidemic generalized? Which key populations that account for the highest proportion of those living with HIV, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) or commercial sex workers (CSW)?

Discuss 3-4 major findings regarding which key populations are most at risk and why.

Then, check the status of laws regarding LGBTQ+ people in your country. Are the laws protecting or discriminating against the LGBTQ+ community?

Here are some sources to help you: (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)





Complete the three tables using recent, scientific information on Fiji.

  • You need to use at least 3 different references for each table. Suggested references are found in the document with the blank tables. References should not be more than 8 years old.
  • Please type your answers.
  • Under the “data” column, write the corresponding health information. Make sure to indicate if this is a %, a real #, a fraction, etc.
  • Under the “year” column, report the year of the data (not necessarily the year of the reference.)
  • Under the “source” column, include the source of the data, such as UNAIDS, WHO, UNICEF, etc. with the website URL. I should be able to easily find which source goes to which data.

 Students will be graded on:

  • Completeness of table
  • Accuracy of information reported
  • Use of most up-to-date information available
  • Proper use and citation of references



To complete the tables, students are encouraged to review the recommended global health websites below. You can also use other sources, as long as they are credible, up-to-date and scientific.

CIA World Factbook

Demographic and Health Surveys (excellent country reports available)


Population Reference Bureau    http://www.prb.or

Sustainable Development Goals: (country profiles found in Chapter 4)

The Tobacco Atlas

UNICEF State of the World’s Children (highlights different topics each year)

UN Countdown to 2030: Material, Newborn, and Child Survival

UNDP Migration Data

UNDP Human Development Index

World Bank (Development indicators) (country reports)

World Health Organization (country reports) (Statistical database) (NCDs)

NAME _________________________________   COUNTRY ___________________________________  


Table 1.  Demographic, economic indicators and major burden of disease


PART 1: YOUR COUNTRY Data Year Source
Example: Population living below $1.90/day (%) 5.6% 2017
Total population
Population living in urban areas (%)
Life expectancy at birth (yrs)




Human Development Index

Index Score


Gender Development Index
World Freedom Index ranking
Total adult literacy (%)
Ranked low, middle or high income?
GNI per capita ($)
% of total budget spent on health
Total expenditure on health per capita
Gini coefficient
Population living below $1.90/day (%)
Homicide rate (per 100,000 people)
Top 3 diseases (in terms of deaths)




% deaths due to non-communicable diseases
HIV prevalence (%)

NAME _________________________________   COUNTRY ___________________________________  


Table 2.  Non-Communicable Diseases, the Environment, Nutrition, Maternal


Indicator Data Year Source
Current Daily Tobacco Smoking prevalence (%)




Alcohol consumption per capita (liters)      
Obesity (%) (or overweight if can’t find)




Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (tons)      
Population using safely managed sanitation

–Rural %

–Urban %

Population using basic water source

–Rural %

–Urban %

Total fertility rate      
Antenatal coverage, at least once (%)
Antenatal coverage, at least four times (%)
Skilled attendant at birth (%)
Contraceptive prevalence (%)
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)
Adolescent (15-19 years) birth rate
Unmet need for family planning (%)
Child marriage (%)
Infant mortality rate (per….ADD INFO)
Child mortality rate (per…ADD INFO)
Children breastfed (describe more here)
Children underweight (%)
Children wasted (%)
Children stunted (%)


Windshield Survey

Windshield Survey

Part I:  For this assignment, students will take about an hour to explore a particular district/ or community.  Drive around and really look around the community to assess what resources are available. From your observations, complete the following form. If you were unable to visually locate answers, please research and find where these nearest resources are

Section I: Windshield Survey

What is the name of the community/city/county?  



What are the boundaries of this city or where is this community located? Is it obvious where the community starts and ends? And you know that how?  
















What kinds of services for families are available? Could a family find everything they need on a day to day basis within this neighborhood/community? (such as food, gas, healthcare, etc.)  If not, how far would they have to travel to find such services?  



















Is the city/community safe to children to play and walk to school? Describe.  












Are there any organizations like Boys and Girls Clubs, churches, or Head Start centers that provide activities for children? Describe.  

















What kinds of jobs would people have in this community? Any special industry or big employers present? Describe.































Do the schools appear inviting to students?  Are the buildings in good condition or are they run down? Are the playgrounds current or old? Describe.  











Is there lots of real estate for sale?  Are they mostly houses or is there evidence of closed down businesses?  













What type of stores/businesses are available (shopping centers, neighborhood stores, convenience stores, grocery stores, pharmacies?) Are they in one area or spread out within the community? Can people walk there? Describe.  















Any ethnic stores/markets? If not local, how far would residents have to travel?  








Are there churches present? Do those buildings appear to be well maintained or are they run down?  What is the predominate type of church building seen? Describe.  












Are there doctor offices/dental offices within the community/neighborhood? Any alternative medicine services available? Any hospitals? Is medical care available within the community or do the residents have to travel?  If they travel, how far away do they have to go for care?  












Are there social agencies (welfare, WIC, social services) available? If not found local where are these nearest agencies found?  







Any senior centers or child care centers available? Does it appear that the centers are utilized? Describe.  











Are there community organizations present (Elks, Masons, etc.)? If not seen locally, how far away are these types of organizations for residents?  






Are there any restaurants or fast food in the community/neighborhood? Describe.  













Are there political signs present? What are most of the political signs about? Does the community appear to be Republican or Democrat? Describe.  








What is the age of the houses? Are they all new or old or a mix of both? Are they made of bricks or painted? Are they mostly single story or multistory homes? Describe.  













Are there single-family homes, mobile homes, apartments or duplexes? Describe.  












Do the houses appear to be well maintained or are they run down? Are the yards maintained? Is there junk on the porches/yard? Describe.  











Are there sidewalks and stoplights in the community/neighborhood? Describe.









Is there any open public spaces? Recreations centers? Green spaces? Public gardens or parks?  Do the parks seem to be in good repair or are they run down? Are there lots of trees?  








Are there any baseball fields, soccer fields?

(The schools may have these)








Is the community/neighborhood clean or is there litter?  Any abandoned cars or junk visible to the public? Describe.











What is the overall air quality appear to be? Any smog, stink? Does the water in lakes or ponds appear reasonably clear? Describe.  







How to people get around in the neighborhood? Do the cars appear well maintained or are they old? Are there buses, sidewalks, any bicyclists? Is there a train? Are there bicycle lanes or bicycle racks in many places?  









Are the roads in good repair or are they in poor condition? Describe.  







How is the traffic?  Is it mostly commercial traffic or local traffic? Describe.  








Do you see any law enforcement officers? Is their presence felt in the community? Describe.  





Are there major highways/roads through the neighborhood/community?  




Can you find a fire station? Notice any fire hydrants around the town/neighborhood? If not seen, where is the nearest fire station?





Any ambulance garages present? (The local hospitals or fire stations may have this if not seen separately)




Any evidence of a neighborhood watch program? Are homes gated off? Do you see security system signs posted in yards/businesses? Describe.  





What is the ethnicity of the neighborhood/community? Describe.  





Where do young people go to gather/hang out in the neighborhood/community? Where do the elderly go? Describe.  








Are there nursing homes/rehab centers present? If not found locally how far away are these resources?  










Any evidence of homelessness? Is there a homeless shelter? Describe.  





Notice any stray animals? Describe.







Miscellaneous observations (here is where you describe the situation that led you to choose the community project you will be doing, if the observations do not fall into one of the above categories.  










Section II: Data/Observation Analysis:

What is your overall impression of the community?

What are the neighborhood/community’s weaknesses or challenges or problems?

What is the most pressing problem you identified, in your opinion? Propose a solution to this problem that is realistic and relevant. Discuss who would address this and how.

What is the most striking thing about this community?

What was most unexpected?





How can community health nurses apply the strategies of cultural competence to their practice? Provide at least one example from each of the following four strategies: cultural preservation, cultural accommodation, cultural re-patterning, and cultural brokering. What is a possible barrier to applying the strategy/example chosen? Use an example that is different than the postings of other students.


To receive maximum credit for discussion questions, please adhere to the following: Include a minimum of 250-300 words and two professional references, one of which, may be Stanhope and both references must be cited in your discussion.



Identify a current health issue of interest to you e.g. diabetes, HIV/AIDS, heart disease etc. On the basis of current epidemiologic evidence, explain the factors that have contributed to the following: the observed trend in mortality rates for this disease, the changes in survival; the changes in incidence. A key concept in epidemiology is that of the levels of prevention. As a community health nurse, describe primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions related to this health issue. Are there modifiable factors, such as health behaviors that lend themselves to better prevention efforts?


Use an example that is different than the postings of other students.

Policymakers And Healthcare Managers

Policymakers And Healthcare Managers

As policymakers and healthcare managers consider various ways to contain the rising costs of health care, it is useful to examine the patterns and elements of health care costs that are needed to run the United States delivery system.

Explain the difference between fixed and variable costs in healthcare. Give an example of each from a healthcare setting.


To support your work, use your course and textbook readings. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.