Professional Nursing and State-Level Regulations6050

To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and reflect on the mission of state/regional boards of nursing as the protection of the public through the regulation of nursing practice.
  • Consider how key regulations may impact nursing practice.
  • Review key regulations for nursing practice of your state’s/region’s board of nursing and those of at least one other state/region and select at least two APRN regulations to focus on for this Discussion.

 

Post a comparison of at least two APRN board of nursing regulations in your state/region with those of at least one other state/region. Describe how they may differ. Be specific and provide examples. Then, explain how the regulations you selected may apply to Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) who have legal authority to practice within the full scope of their education and experience. Provide at least one example of how APRNs may adhere to the two regulations you selected.

 Economics

 Economics

1.Can universal healthcare be guaranteed if the market is allowed to operate without government intervention? Why or why not?

2.Is the demand for overall healthcare more elastic or inelastic? What implication does this have?

3.What four assumptions must be met for a market to be perfectly competitive? If these assumptions are not met, does this mean perfect competition cannot be achieved?

4.Can a market work if it is not perfectly competitive? Will it reach equilibrium price? If a price is not at equilibrium will the result be more or less surpluses and shortages of goods and services than if at equilibrium?

5.What is meant by externalities and public goods? Does a market economy address externalities and public goods? What role, if any, can government have in addressing externalities and public goods?

TW ch 8, 9

Teitelbaum  & Wilensky

Chapter 8 Health Insurance

1.What historical event occurred that resulted in a sharp increase in employer-sponsored health insurance? Why did this increase occur?

2.What are the advantages and disadvantages of employer sponsored health insurance to the insured?

3.Does having insurance make the insured more or less concerned about the cost of care?

4.What is fee for service? What are its advantages and disadvantages to the patient? To the practitioner?

5.How are these terms related to health insurance?

1.Asymmetric information

2.Adverse selection

6.What law passed in 2010 prevents insurance plans from charging higher premiums due to pre-existing conditions?

T and W Chapter 9 Health Economics

  1. How is Economics defined?

2.Why is the understanding of economics important to healthcare policy and law?

3.Explain these concepts:

    1. Rational decision making
    2. Utility
    3. Diminishing marginal utility

4.What is economic demand?

5.How do these factors each influence demand?

    1. Income
    2. Quality
    3. Price of a substitute
    4. Price of a complement
    5.   See Box 9.2. Do you support theory x or y as it relates to healthcare?
    6. How might your position affect how you see the government role in healthcare?
    7. What is elasticity and how might it be important in health economics?
    8. What is the difference between average and marginal cost? Use an example if needed to explain.
    9. What is supplier-induced demand? How might physicians induce demand in a fee for services reimbursement system?
    10. Is the healthcare market perfectly competitive? If we allow the “free market” to operate without any interference from government will everyone be able to purchase healthcare?
    11. Describe monopolistic competition.
    12. What is market failure?
    13. Is lack of income equity a market failure?
    14. What is a public good or an externality? How do these affect the market and economy?
    15. What role does government have in the healthcare market?
    16. Give examples of:
    1. Government financing public goods
    2. Tax increases, tax deductions, and tax subsidies
    3. Regulatory mandates
    4. Prohibitions
    5. Redistribution of income

 

 

HIV Subgroups

HIV Subgroups

Investigate the HIV/AIDS situation among key populations in Fiji . Is the epidemic generalized? Which key populations that account for the highest proportion of those living with HIV, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) or commercial sex workers (CSW)?

Discuss 3-4 major findings regarding which key populations are most at risk and why.

Then, check the status of laws regarding LGBTQ+ people in your country. Are the laws protecting or discriminating against the LGBTQ+ community?

Here are some sources to help you:

https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world (Links to an external site.)

https://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries (Links to an external site.)

https://www.hrw.org/video-photos/interactive/2020/06/22/human-rights-watch-country-profiles-sexual-orientation-and

CASE STUDY

CASE STUDY FOR FIJI COUNTRY

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COUNTRY CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT

INSTRUCTIONS:

Complete the three tables using recent, scientific information on Fiji.

  • You need to use at least 3 different references for each table. Suggested references are found in the document with the blank tables. References should not be more than 8 years old.
  • Please type your answers.
  • Under the “data” column, write the corresponding health information. Make sure to indicate if this is a %, a real #, a fraction, etc.
  • Under the “year” column, report the year of the data (not necessarily the year of the reference.)
  • Under the “source” column, include the source of the data, such as UNAIDS, WHO, UNICEF, etc. with the website URL. I should be able to easily find which source goes to which data.

 Students will be graded on:

  • Completeness of table
  • Accuracy of information reported
  • Use of most up-to-date information available
  • Proper use and citation of references

 RECOMMENDED DATA SOURCES FOR COUNTRY CASE STUDY TABLES

 

To complete the tables, students are encouraged to review the recommended global health websites below. You can also use other sources, as long as they are credible, up-to-date and scientific.

CIA World Factbook https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/

Demographic and Health Surveys (excellent country reports available)

http://www.measuredhs.com

http://www.statcompiler.com/

Gapminder     http://www.gapminder.org/data/

Population Reference Bureau    http://www.prb.or

Sustainable Development Goals: http://www.sdgindex.org/assets/files/2018/01%20SDGS%20GLOBAL%20EDITION%20WEB%20V9%20180718.pdf (country profiles found in Chapter 4)

The Tobacco Atlas https://tobaccoatlas.org/

UNICEF State of the World’s Children (highlights different topics each year)    http://unicef.org/sowc

UN Countdown to 2030: Material, Newborn, and Child Survival http://profiles.countdown2030.org/#/ds/A

UNDP Migration Data

https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

UNDP Human Development Index  http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries

World Bank

http://data.worldbank.org/indicator (Development indicators)

https://data.worldbank.org/country (country reports)

World Health Organization

https://www.who.int/countries/en/ (country reports)

http://www.who.int/whosis/en/ (Statistical database)

https://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd-profiles-2018/en/ (NCDs)

NAME _________________________________   COUNTRY ___________________________________  

 

Table 1.  Demographic, economic indicators and major burden of disease

 

PART 1: YOUR COUNTRY Data Year Source
Example: Population living below $1.90/day (%) 5.6% 2017 www.who.int/countryreportsouthafrica
Total population
Population living in urban areas (%)
Life expectancy at birth (yrs)

M

F

Overall

Human Development Index

Index Score

Rank

Gender Development Index
World Freedom Index ranking
Total adult literacy (%)
Ranked low, middle or high income?
GNI per capita ($)
% of total budget spent on health
Total expenditure on health per capita
Gini coefficient
Population living below $1.90/day (%)
Homicide rate (per 100,000 people)
Top 3 diseases (in terms of deaths)

1.

2.

3.

% deaths due to non-communicable diseases
HIV prevalence (%)

NAME _________________________________   COUNTRY ___________________________________  

 

Table 2.  Non-Communicable Diseases, the Environment, Nutrition, Maternal

 

Indicator Data Year Source
Current Daily Tobacco Smoking prevalence (%)

–overall

–males

–females

     
Alcohol consumption per capita (liters)      
Obesity (%) (or overweight if can’t find)

–overall

–males

–females

     
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (tons)      
Population using safely managed sanitation

–Rural %

–Urban %

     
Population using basic water source

–Rural %

–Urban %

     
Total fertility rate      
Antenatal coverage, at least once (%)
Antenatal coverage, at least four times (%)
Skilled attendant at birth (%)
Contraceptive prevalence (%)
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)
Adolescent (15-19 years) birth rate
Unmet need for family planning (%)
Child marriage (%)
Infant mortality rate (per….ADD INFO)
Child mortality rate (per…ADD INFO)
Children breastfed (describe more here)
Children underweight (%)
Children wasted (%)
Children stunted (%)

 

Windshield Survey

Windshield Survey

Part I:  For this assignment, students will take about an hour to explore a particular district/ or community.  Drive around and really look around the community to assess what resources are available. From your observations, complete the following form. If you were unable to visually locate answers, please research and find where these nearest resources are

Section I: Windshield Survey

What is the name of the community/city/county?  

 

 

What are the boundaries of this city or where is this community located? Is it obvious where the community starts and ends? And you know that how?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What kinds of services for families are available? Could a family find everything they need on a day to day basis within this neighborhood/community? (such as food, gas, healthcare, etc.)  If not, how far would they have to travel to find such services?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Is the city/community safe to children to play and walk to school? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there any organizations like Boys and Girls Clubs, churches, or Head Start centers that provide activities for children? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What kinds of jobs would people have in this community? Any special industry or big employers present? Describe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do the schools appear inviting to students?  Are the buildings in good condition or are they run down? Are the playgrounds current or old? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Is there lots of real estate for sale?  Are they mostly houses or is there evidence of closed down businesses?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What type of stores/businesses are available (shopping centers, neighborhood stores, convenience stores, grocery stores, pharmacies?) Are they in one area or spread out within the community? Can people walk there? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Any ethnic stores/markets? If not local, how far would residents have to travel?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there churches present? Do those buildings appear to be well maintained or are they run down?  What is the predominate type of church building seen? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there doctor offices/dental offices within the community/neighborhood? Any alternative medicine services available? Any hospitals? Is medical care available within the community or do the residents have to travel?  If they travel, how far away do they have to go for care?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there social agencies (welfare, WIC, social services) available? If not found local where are these nearest agencies found?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Any senior centers or child care centers available? Does it appear that the centers are utilized? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there community organizations present (Elks, Masons, etc.)? If not seen locally, how far away are these types of organizations for residents?  

 

 

 

 

 

Are there any restaurants or fast food in the community/neighborhood? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there political signs present? What are most of the political signs about? Does the community appear to be Republican or Democrat? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is the age of the houses? Are they all new or old or a mix of both? Are they made of bricks or painted? Are they mostly single story or multistory homes? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there single-family homes, mobile homes, apartments or duplexes? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do the houses appear to be well maintained or are they run down? Are the yards maintained? Is there junk on the porches/yard? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there sidewalks and stoplights in the community/neighborhood? Describe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Is there any open public spaces? Recreations centers? Green spaces? Public gardens or parks?  Do the parks seem to be in good repair or are they run down? Are there lots of trees?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there any baseball fields, soccer fields?

(The schools may have these)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Is the community/neighborhood clean or is there litter?  Any abandoned cars or junk visible to the public? Describe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What is the overall air quality appear to be? Any smog, stink? Does the water in lakes or ponds appear reasonably clear? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to people get around in the neighborhood? Do the cars appear well maintained or are they old? Are there buses, sidewalks, any bicyclists? Is there a train? Are there bicycle lanes or bicycle racks in many places?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are the roads in good repair or are they in poor condition? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

How is the traffic?  Is it mostly commercial traffic or local traffic? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do you see any law enforcement officers? Is their presence felt in the community? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

Are there major highways/roads through the neighborhood/community?  

 

 

 

Can you find a fire station? Notice any fire hydrants around the town/neighborhood? If not seen, where is the nearest fire station?

 

 

 

 

Any ambulance garages present? (The local hospitals or fire stations may have this if not seen separately)

 

 

 

Any evidence of a neighborhood watch program? Are homes gated off? Do you see security system signs posted in yards/businesses? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

What is the ethnicity of the neighborhood/community? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

Where do young people go to gather/hang out in the neighborhood/community? Where do the elderly go? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are there nursing homes/rehab centers present? If not found locally how far away are these resources?  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Any evidence of homelessness? Is there a homeless shelter? Describe.  

 

 

 

 

Notice any stray animals? Describe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miscellaneous observations (here is where you describe the situation that led you to choose the community project you will be doing, if the observations do not fall into one of the above categories.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section II: Data/Observation Analysis:

What is your overall impression of the community?

What are the neighborhood/community’s weaknesses or challenges or problems?

What is the most pressing problem you identified, in your opinion? Propose a solution to this problem that is realistic and relevant. Discuss who would address this and how.

What is the most striking thing about this community?

What was most unexpected?

 

 

NURSING IN THE COMMUNITY

NURSING IN THE COMMUNITY

How can community health nurses apply the strategies of cultural competence to their practice? Provide at least one example from each of the following four strategies: cultural preservation, cultural accommodation, cultural re-patterning, and cultural brokering. What is a possible barrier to applying the strategy/example chosen? Use an example that is different than the postings of other students.

Instructions

To receive maximum credit for discussion questions, please adhere to the following: Include a minimum of 250-300 words and two professional references, one of which, may be Stanhope and both references must be cited in your discussion.

Epidemiology

 Epidemiology

Identify a current health issue of interest to you e.g. diabetes, HIV/AIDS, heart disease etc. On the basis of current epidemiologic evidence, explain the factors that have contributed to the following: the observed trend in mortality rates for this disease, the changes in survival; the changes in incidence. A key concept in epidemiology is that of the levels of prevention. As a community health nurse, describe primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions related to this health issue. Are there modifiable factors, such as health behaviors that lend themselves to better prevention efforts?

Note

Use an example that is different than the postings of other students.

Policymakers And Healthcare Managers

Policymakers And Healthcare Managers

As policymakers and healthcare managers consider various ways to contain the rising costs of health care, it is useful to examine the patterns and elements of health care costs that are needed to run the United States delivery system.

Explain the difference between fixed and variable costs in healthcare. Give an example of each from a healthcare setting.

Instructions

To support your work, use your course and textbook readings. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.

Sources Of Revenue

Sources Of Revenue In For-Profit Healthcare

For this assignment, you will be looking at sources of revenue for HCA Healthcare, Inc. Please visit the following link:

SEC Filings for HCA Healthcare, Inc.

Select the most recent 10-Q filing and review the contents. In particular, review the section on revenue amounts from third-party payers (i.e. Medicare, Medicaid, Managed Care and Insurers, etc.)

Instructions

Write a 2- to 3-page analysis of the sources of revenue.

Be sure to define each source of revenue and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each source from the perspective of the healthcare manager.