In many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken.  An infection is present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on the other hand, deals with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, too, be “defined objectively and by scientific criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Boland, Verduin, & Ruiz, 2022).

Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression, classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?


Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.

Upload a copy of your discussion writing to the draft Turnitin for plagiarism check.  Your faculty holds the academic freedom to not accept your work and grade at a zero if your work is not uploaded as a draft submission to Turnitin as instructed. 

Discussion response 2

Respond to your peer


Week 1 Main Post : Biological, Psychological, and Social, Cultural, and Interpersonal Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology

            Understanding mental health issues should also come with the reflection that the cause could vary from different factors. Psychopathology explains that some of these factors may stem from biological, psychological or social issues. It means that the person facing the mental health issues could have got them from social issues such as dysfunctional relationships or even their genetics.


           Understanding mental health issues is among the strategies that can be used to understand how to treat these conditions. Biologically, the conditions are linked to genetic variations and mutations, which determine the direction that a person would take when it comes to their mental health and pathophysiology. Masten and Kalstabakken (2018) explain that biological factors such as specific genes are linked to mental health issues such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. It then proves that these mental health issues can be linked to the biological framework of an individual.


           Psychological factors are also crucial contributors to the development of psychopathology. These factors revolve around issues pertaining to cognitive processes. Jackson and Milberg (2018) further explain that cognitive biases, distorted thought patterns, and dysfunctional beliefs are among the cognitive processes that have been known to contribute to mental health issues related to pathophysiology. As such, they are known to develop other mental health issues. These are issues such as depression, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. The impacts of these disorders tend to affect the subject in different ways, which revolve around distorted body image, negative self-schema, and catastrophizing.

Social and cultural

           The social, cultural, and interpersonal factors also contribute to these issues, considering that they create an environment that limits their capability to have stable mental health. Cheung and Mak (2018) explain that some of the factors surrounding mental health include family dynamics, cultural beliefs, and social support, which determine where a person will get the help they need when dealing with mental health issues. When these challenges become paramount, it makes it challenging for the individual to get the help that they need, which would help them get the support they need.

            Summarily, psychopathology can be attributed to biological, psychological or social issues. The biological issues revolve around their genetics which could lead to mental health issues. Psychological issues include distorted thought patterns and other mental health issues. On the other hand, social issues such as a dysfunctional relationship could result in these issues.



Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. APA Handbook of Psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, Assessing, and Treating Adult Mental Disorders (Vol. 1)., 127–147. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-006

Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. APA Handbook of Psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, Assessing, and Treating Adult Mental Disorders (Vol. 1)., 65–90. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000064-004

Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. APA Handbook of Psychopathology: Child and Adolescent Psychopathology (Vol. 2)., 15–36. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000065-002

Discussion response 1

Respond to your peer



Factors Influencing the Development of Psychopathology


        The term psychopathology was coined by German psychiatrist Hermann Emminghaus in 1879. It refers to the scientific study of abnormal mental states or mental illnesses/disorders (Schultze-Lutter, Schmidt, & Theodoridou, 2018). Psychopathology describes the symptoms, causes, development, and treatment of various mental disorders. The development of psychopathology involves various biological, psychological, and social factors discussed in this essay.

Biological Factors Influencing the Development of Psychopathology

        Biological factors such as including genetics and neurobiology are highly implicated in the development of various mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Research indicates that some mental disorders involve specific brain structures. For instance, overactivity in the Brodmann Area 25 (BA25) often manifests in individuals with depression. BA25 is a part of the brain that acts as a “junction box” that interacts with other areas of the brain involved in emotion, thinking, and mood through neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Overactivity in the BA25 region causes an increased negative effect (anxiety, sadness) and a reduced positive effect (joy, happiness). Additionally, hormones and neurotransmitters play an important role in the development of psychopathology. Neurotransmitters are responsible for sending chemical signals between neurons. In case the level of neurotransmitters in the brain is out of balance, the chemical communication between neurons is disrupted, leading to the development of symptoms associated with various mental health disorders. For instance, an increase in dopamine activity in certain brain areas is associated with the development of schizophrenia. The brain also uses hormones to communicate and hormone imbalance can lead to the development of symptoms associated with mental health disorders. For instance, elevated cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of depression since they alter the functioning of serotonin receptors.

        Genetics has long been implicated in the development of various psychological disorders. Familial and twin studies have shown that conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, alcohol dependence, anxiety, and depression run in families (Smoller, et al., 2020). The heritability of anxiety and depressive disorders is estimated to be between 20% to 45%. The rate is higher for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (up to 75%). Various genetic variations or mutations are associated with the development of psychological disorders. For instance, a variation in the CACNA1C gene has been linked to disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Mutations in genes such as CHD8, GRIN2B, SHANK3, and SCN2A are associated with autism spectrum disorder (Smoller, et al., 2020). However, studies indicate that most psychiatric conditions are highly polygenic and involve abnormalities in multiple genes.

Psychological Factors Influencing the Development of Psychopathology

        Psychological factors play an important role in the development of psychopathology. For instance, factors such as childhood neglect and early childhood trauma are associated with a higher likelihood of developing PTSD and mood disorders such as anxiety and depression (Remes, Mendes, & Templeton, 2021). Psychological factors such as underlying beliefs, attitudes, emotional attachments, motivations, and coping mechanisms can also influence mental health. A person’s underlying beliefs, expectations, and assumptions about the world contribute to the development of psychopathology by giving rise to certain emotions in response to stressful life events. These emotions drive behavior and lead to undesirable consequences that further deteriorate a person’s mental health. Psychological attachments are considered to significantly influence psychopathology. Emotional attachment to someone or something can disrupt mental health in case the attachment is disrupted. This disruption influences how the brain develops and affects vulnerability to various mental health conditions. In adulthood, ongoing stress or traumatic life events increase the risk of developing mental health conditions. Issues such as failed relationships, domestic violence, social isolation, and financial burdens can have a huge impact on mental health.

Social, Cultural, and Interpersonal Factors Influencing the Development of Psychopathology

        Social factors are conditions in the environment where a person is born, lives, learns, works, or plays. These factors have a huge influence on the development of psychopathology. Social support is an essential factor that can significantly affect mental health. Having a strong social support system can help individuals cope with stress and depression (Remes, Mendes, & Templeton, 2021). On the other hand, lack of a social support or meaningful connections can lead to development of mental illnesses, especially anxiety and depression. Some social expectations such as those surrounding beauty standards and life achievements can lead to the development of conditions such as mood disorders and eating disorders. Culture is also highly implicated in the development of psychopathology. For instance, some cultural norms promote stigmatization of individuals with certain mental health conditions, consequently discouraging individuals from seeking help. Failure to seek help can exacerbate mental health conditions. In fact, some psychiatric conditions such as bipolar I disorder require hospitalization during manic episodes.

        Interpersonal factors refer to peer interactions, friendships, romantic relationships, and familial connections. Interactions with peers especially during childhood and adolescence can influence the development of mental health conditions. For instance, negative childhood experiences such as bullying, victimization, and social rejection can cause mental health issues such as anxiety and depression. Similarly, being in unhealthy or abusive romantic relationships is associated with a higher likelihood of developing psychopathology.


        The development of psychopathology involves an interplay of various biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. Research indicates that a majority of mental health illnesses are hereditable. Various gene mutations and variations have also been associated with the development of psychopathology. Psychological factors such as life experiences and emotional attachments are predictors of mental health illnesses. How people deal with stressful events also influences the development of psychopathology. A person’s environment can dictate whether they develop mental health illnesses. Understanding how all these factors influence mental health is critical in developing effective interventions. 


Remes, O., Mendes, J. F., & Templeton, P. (2021, December 10). Biological, Psychological, and Social Determinants of            Depression: A Review of Recent Literature. National Library of Medicine.                                                                                doi:https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fbrainsci11121633

Schultze-Lutter, F., Schmidt, S. J., & Theodoridou, A. (2018, September 19). Psychopathology—a Precision Tool in                  Need of Re-sharpening. Frontiers in Psychiatry. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffpsyt.2018.00446

Smoller, J. W., Andreassen, O. A., Edenberg, H. J., Faraone, S. V., Glatt, S. J., & Kendler, K. S. (2020, March 1).                         Psychiatric Genetics and the Structure of Psychopathology. PubMed Central.                                                                       doi:https://doi.org/10.1038%2Fs41380-017-0010-4






No more than 10 pages (10 slides)





  • Opportunity is at StartupR&D is done; product/ service is ready for sale; market research is done – show results (proof) to investors.
  • Only one CEO (and others from team not to be included in the team) – no more than 30 years old. Can make up background – but points will be deducted if resume unreasonable (make sure that CEO has not managed a company or venture before).


Semester: _______ Plan: ___________________________________________ Team No.: _____



  1. Elevator Pitch (TO INVESTORS, NOT CONSUMERS – ADD SIZZLE):………………………………… ___/1
  2. Opportunity (Product and Trends & comparison with competitors)…………………………….. ___/5
  3. Strategy (Market; Industry)…………………………………………………………………………………….. _/5
  4. Take-Off (Launch; Price; Speed)…………………………………………………………………………….. __/4
  5. Proof: Primary and real research to show viability…………………………………………………… ___/4

                Primary research: Your surveys (who, what, etc.); Real research: your test results; conditional   contracts, etc.

  1. Skills (What is your background – education; training; experience – to launch…………………. __/5


TOTAL:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ____/24


Focus should be on evaluating the opportunity based on long-term competitive advantage, potential for strategic differentiation, attractiveness of markets, risks and harvest potential. And offer proof assuming that you have been working on this project for the last 3 months to prove the venture.


The International Business Plan should be a power point presentation with notes (include resumes, detailed projections, market research questionnaire, etc. in the appendix) that will constitute the group’s final written report. (Note that the credibility of budgets and projections depends on the clarity of the business concept, and the thoroughness and believability of the information and decisions that underlie the analysis.) The Plan should be in PowerPoint format and enhanced with notes at the bottom of the slides to provide the backup information needed (No word documents).


Also ensure:


No more than 10 slides

Minimum design – I don’t reward design. I do reward good analysis

Black font on white background

Large enough to be readable



Nursing interventions within the LPN scope of practice and complications

Nursing interventions within the LPN scope of practice, and recognize serious complications.

To work with a team of professionals, select appropriate nursing interventions within the LPN scope of practice, and recognize serious complications.

Explain care for the client with lower respiratory disorders.

Read the case study below and answer the questions. Site any sources using APA format.

The Story
You are an LPN working in a community health clinic on a team of professionals that includes a medical assistant, RN, and nurse practitioner. The clinic is just opening for the day on a day that is particularly hot and humid. A woman runs into the clinic with an older gentleman yelling “he can’t breathe.” The client appears flushed (reddened skin), is unable to speak, and appears very short of breath. The client’s wife tells you that he has “emphysema” and refuses to put the air conditioning on in their home because he is afraid the electric bill will be too high. She also tells you that he ran out of his medications, including his inhalers and prednisone, almost 2 weeks ago. The client has a respiratory rate of 44 and an O2 Sat. of 84% on room air. His blood pressure is 168/100.

Question 1: List two nursing interventions that should be done immediately. (2-3 sentences)
Question 2: What environmental factor(s) do you think contributed to the client’s current situation? (2-3 sentences)
Question 3: What danger could the client face by abruptly stopping prednisone? (5-10 sentences)
Question 4: Explain why compliance is important in managing chronic diseases such as COPD? (5-10 sentences)
Question 5: After this client is stabilized and his breathing improves. What should be addressed with him on his next clinic visit? (5-10 sentences)

The Future of Nursing 2020-2030

  1. The Future of Nursing 2020-2030
  2. Review “The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Report-Highlights_Future-of-Nursing.pdf (19 downloads) Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity,” and explore the “Campaign for Action: State Action Coalition” website, both located in the topic Resources. In a 1,000-1,250-word paper, discuss the influence “The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health” and state-based action coalitions have had on nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing workforce development, and how they continue to advance the goals for the nursing profession.
  3. Include the following:
    Describe the work of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine that led to the report, “The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity.”
    Explain the trend occurring in the nursing workforce and how nursing education is adapting to meet the evolving needs of the profession.  What is the role of the nurse in leading change?
    Discuss the role of state-based action coalitions. Explain how these coalitions help advance the goals specified in the National Academy of Sciences report, “The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity.”
    Research the initiatives on which your state’s action coalition is working. Summarize two initiatives spearheaded by your state’s action coalition. Discuss the ways these initiatives advance the nursing profession.
    Describe barriers to advancement that currently exist in your state and explain how nursing advocates in your state overcome these barriers.
    You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.
    Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
    This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
    You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.



Intervention And Prevention

ü  Identify the development of substance abuse disorders, community capacities and strength-based principles in addressing substance abuse disorders

ü  Describe their actions on the brain and body including mechanisms of tolerance, dependence, withdrawal, cravings, and other physical and emotional effects.

Financial Ratio Calculation of  Coca-Cola’s company 

Financial Ratio Calculation of  Coca-Cola’s company 


This assignment is designed to help you apply mathematical skills in analyzing financial statements and utilize technology in financial analysis.


The 10-K report is an essential annual financial document that publicly traded companies must file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This detailed report covers a company’s financial performance, including income statements, balance sheets, cash flow statements, and an extensive review of business operations, risks, and management’s perspective. It serves as a critical tool for investors, analysts, and regulators to assess a company’s financial stability, strategic direction, and overall business health. To delve into the specifics, access The Coca-Cola Company’s (NYSE: KO) 2021 Annual Report through this link Links to an external site. to an external site or refer to the attached Coca-Cola 2021 10K-2.pdf

Actions. Familiarize yourself with the annual report’s structure, particularly focusing on Item 8, which encompasses Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. It’s crucial to read and understand Coca-Cola’s financial statements thoroughly.


Financial Ratio Calculation – Utilize Excel to calculate Coca-Cola’s financial ratios for 2020, including the current ratio, debt ratio, debt-to-equity ratio, times-interest-earned ratio, profit margin ratio, and gross profit percentage. A template Excel file (Assignment – Financial Statement Analysis-1.xlsx Download Assignment – Financial Statement Analysis-1.xlsx), already incorporating the company’s income statement and balance sheet, along with the calculated ratios for 2021, is provided for guidance.

Submit the updated ‘Financial Statement Analysis’ with the 2020 financial ratios as your completed assignment.

Here are some helpful videos to guide you in using Excel:

1. Excel Project Video: Constructing a Formula & Using the SUM FunctionLinks to an external site.

2. Excel Project Video: Copying a Formula Using the Fill Handle & Relative Cell ReferencesLinks to an external site.

3. Excel Project Video: How to Enter AnswersLinks to an external site.

4. Excel Project Video: Using Arithmetic Operators in ExcelLinks to an external site.

5. Excel Project Video: How to Navigate a Worksheet/Workbook & How to Save a FileLinks to an external site.

This tutorial provides a detailed introduction to Excel, perfect for those starting out: https://youtu.be/LgXzzu68j7M

Link:  Inline XBRL Viewer (sec.gov) [Download not found]

a school board meeting

a school board meeting

Attend a school board meeting for a local school district. If you are unable to attend in person, you may watch a live stream or an official recorded video of a recent school board meeting.

In a 500 reflection about your experience, address the following:

  1. Describe each item addressed at the board meeting. What was being discussed and why?
  2. Explain who was in attendance at the meeting. What kinds of people were there? Why were they there? Were you surprised by who attended?
  3. Describe who presented at the meeting. Were the presentations civil? Did you agree with one side or another of the arguments?
  4. What you learned at this board meeting.
  5. How you will use what you learned as a teacher.

Submit a copy of the meeting agenda to the learning management system with your reflection.