Enter the letter of the correct response to each question in the space beside the question.
1. The components of personality identified by Sigmund Freud are:
- the oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital periods.
- the id, ego, and superego.
- Eros and Thanatos.
- the Oedipus and Electra complexes.
- the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
__ 2. In Freud’s view, failing to successfully resolve the conflict during a given psychosexual period can result in a(n) ______, where the conflict/concern persists beyond that stage and can influence later life.
- erogenous zone
- psychological investment
- loss of unconditional positive regard
- libidinal frenzy
__ 3. ______ is/are strategies that the ego uses to reduce anxiety caused by unacceptable desires/impulses from the unconscious as well as from external threats to our self-perception.
- Id manifestations
- Ego stealth and deception
- Defense mechanisms
__ 4. According to Alfred Adler, the process by which individuals seek to overcome their real or perceived inferiorities is called:
- an inferiority complex.
- the reality principle.
5. Per trait theory:
- Personality is determined by inner forces/conflicts about which people have little or no awareness/control.
- Personality is composed of stable characteristics/behaviors that are displayed consistently across different situations.
- People are inherently good and tend to strive toward higher levels of functioning.
- Personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns.
- Dimensions of our personality are fixed during the childhood period and can be changed only with great effort.
6. ______ tests of personality attempt to determine an individual’s feelings, desires, needs, and attitudes by asking the individual to interpret an ambiguous stimulus.
- 7. The distinction between normal and abnormal behavior is very clear,
and trained professionals can easily identify both types.
__ 8. Historically, the therapeutic approach selected for the treatment of a psychological disorder:
- has been a hit-or-miss proposition.
- has not been a critical consideration as all therapeutic interventions are equal in their effectiveness.
- has been determined by what is believed to be the underlying cause of the condition.
- has been left to the discretion of the patient/client.
__ 9. Limitation(s) of drug therapy for the treatment of psychological disorders include:
- Psychosurgery and ECT are more effective.
- Drugs only treat symptoms; they don’t cure the underlying condition.
- The prescribed drugs are very expensive.
- Many of the drugs that are used produce negative side-effects.
- The prescribed drugs are not covered under most health plans.
- A, C, and E.
- B and D.
- All of the above.
__ 10. ______ is an intervention technique that employs the principles of operant conditioning to change behavior.
- Conditioned taste aversion
- Behavior modification / Applied Behavior Analysis
__ 11. According to the ______ perspective, psychological disorders are thought to arise from incorrect/inappropriate/dysfunctional thought processes that people apply to the world and to themselves.
__ 12. ______ refers to the belief that we can take control of and change a situation. It is an essential component of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
__ 13. The ______ approach combines techniques from a number of different therapies based on the provider’s judgment of which methods will provide the greatest benefit to the patient.
__ 14. The most prevalent (i.e., common) class of psychological disorders in the US is:
- mood disorders.
- anxiety disorders.
- personality disorders.
- childhood disorders.
__ 15. The work of David Rosenhan, illustrates the extremely imprecise and subjective nature of assessing/diagnosing “abnormal” behavior and highlights how the expectations and biases of mental health “professionals” can influence their diagnoses as well as their interactions with/treatment of patients.
__ 16. ______ are practices, either positive or negative, that affect both physical and psychological health.
- Adaptive behaviors
- Conscientious behaviors
- Self-preservation behaviors
- Health behaviors
__ 17. ______ and ______ are the two top killers of US adults.
- Smoking, obesity
- Homicide, suicide
- Cardiovascular disease, cancer
- Motor vehicle accidents, falls
__ 18. Happy/positive/optimistic people tend to be and psychologically healthier and to live longer.
__ 19. Stress is a ______.
- fact of modern life
- precursor to most psychological disorders
- all of the above
__ 20. Perceived control over an event, the desirability of an event, and/or the effectiveness of our coping strategies/buffers influence our appraisal of the stressfulness of the event.
__ 21. A single, strong, well-established strategy is the most effective way of dealing with stress, as opposed to multiple, varied strategies.
__ 22. ______ is the process by which an individual or group comes to affect the behavior of others.
- Social Psychology
- Social contagion
- Social identity
- Social influence
__ 23. ______ refers to how we think in social situations and the factors/ processes that influence our thinking.
- Social awareness
- Social cognition
- Social competence
__ 24. ______ occurs when membership in a group reduces one’s sense of identity and personal responsibility.
- Social dilution
- Loss of self-concept
- Social isolation
- Group identification
__ 25. Objectification diminishes the human worth of a target, whether the target is an individual or a group.