State the relationship of plants, animals, humans, and the spread of disease. (Wallech, pp. 1-31).
An Example of a Discussion Board Response
Question: Do you agree with the contention that the first advanced civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia and Egypt sometime before 3000 B.C.E.?
How to respond: In your answer, you must let the reader know what a civilization is, that is, define civilization before assessing whether societies of ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt can be called advanced civilizations or not. Be sure to cite sources of information, particularly the assigned reading.
Answer: For a society to qualify as a civilization, it must exhibit certain political, social, economic, and technological characteristics. These include: cities as administrative centers; a political system built upon the control of a defined territory rather than kinship connections; involvement in specialized, non-food-producing activities; social stratification based on accumulation of wealth; monumental building; a writing system; long-distance trade; and advances in science and the arts (Bulliet et.al., 23). Societies in both Mesopotamia and Egypt had all of these traits and thus can be considered advanced civilizations. Considering writing, for example, there was cuneiform and hieroglyphics, respectively (Bulliet et.al., 35; 40).